Lecture_42 - Urbanization and Sustainable
THE GHETTO GOES GREEN
In the Bronx, building a better backyard
Using green strategies to
citizens, and the urban
environment, cities can
be models of efficiency.
Where Do Hazards Come From?
Function of natural processes and materials.
Minimizing impacts requires understanding their origins.
Volcanoes: Tectonic process.
Floods: Surface process.
Hurricanes: Atmospheric process.
Impacts: Space process.
What The Course is Supposed to
Earths Natural Hazards.
NOAA slide set 21-427
GJPS, 5th, Figure 12.2, Page 273
Tuesday, August 20, 13
HH, 4th, Figure 15.1, Page 422
What The Course is Really About
Tsunami 1995 - 2000
EQ Magnitude Fatalities
May 14, 1995
October 9, 1995
January 1, 1996
February 17, 1996
February 21, 1996
July 17, 1997
Papua New Guinea
Introduction to Hazard
Is about what the Physical phenomenon do to the human race.
There is a bias about the news.
IS ABOUT THE PEOPLE AND STAFF AFFEECTED
What makes a harzard?
Impact = probability * the effect of the occurrence
Beign hit by a raindrop
Earth Natural Hazards
In order to minimize the impact of hurricanes, we need to minimize other
Hypothesis are based on initial observations
The outer planets are mostly gas
Inner planets are rocky
Nebular hypothesis: comes together increases attrac
Geologic process and materials
Earth Natural Hazards!
Rivers that collect that water are called hierarchical
The connect to each other
2. Water table :
More infiltration = more groundwater= high water
Introduction to Hazards
Values in a society may worsen the impacts of hazards.
Hazards vs. Disasters
A disaster is like a flood, destroyed property.
A hazard is like snowy
The #1 difference between a hazard and a disaster is people.
Created by differential heating of the atmosphere & hydrosphere.
-Plus planetary rotation
Air rises when warm, sinks when cool.
Air masses of different temperature interact
Weather Basics (2)
Pressure systems: Result of r
Nobody expects most Hazards
Flooding is Predictable
Where they occur, how frequently and how much water will result.
What is a flood
A high discharge event.
-Level exceeds capacity of channel.
Discharge levels predictable
Hurricane & Typhoons
Unusually large cyclonic storms
-Weather on steroids
Very low pressure (2nd only to tornadoes) at storm center.
-On a vastly larger scale
Storms vs., Hurricanes
A normal low-pressure system has ascending at at its center.
Two basic types of hazard, triggered by:
-Day-to- day processes.
The ultimate cause is humans.
-Disturbance that moves through water.
When waves hit Bottom
They slow and following waves catch up.
Lowest probability hazard discussed.
-Greatest destructive potential.
Originally interpreted as volcanic.
-Crypto explosion structures.
-Impact origins not generally accepted until mid 80s
What is impacting?
Areas of low temperature on the surface of the sun
-Status of the atmosphere at a given time and place
-Function of temperature, moisture, wind velocity, barometric pressure, etc.
Meteor Strike (NOVA, 2013)
1) How long after the appearance of the meteor trail did the shockwave hit
3 minutes later
2) For how long did the infrasound waves from the explosion travel around the
Almost a day
3) How many different type
Best defines a mineral and a rock
In a mineral, the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular. repetitive , internal structure
A rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains
(A rock is buildup of minerals)
Exam Four Vocabulary: Chapters 23-32
Chapter 23: Coal
1. Coal: fossil fuels formed when plant materials is buried in oxygen poor conditions
and subjected to high heat and pressure over long time
2. Mountaintop removal: surface mining technique that uses e
Exam Three Vocabulary: Chapter 14-22
Chapter 14: Grasslands
1. Rangeland: grassland used for grazing of livestock
2. Desertification: the process that transforms once-fertile land into desert
-Part of the problem is climate change
3. Overgrazing: too many
EXAM 4 NOTES
CHAPTER 23: COAL
THE WORLD DEPENDS ON COAL FOR MOST OF ITS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
Most of our energy comes from fossil fuels
More than 40% of electricity generation worldwide, and 45% in the U.S. comes form burning coal
Coal has an EROEI o
EXAM TWO TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Which of the following is not true of environmental health?
B: IT FOCUSES ONLY ON HOW NATURAL DISASTERS IMPACT HEALTH
Which of the following is the main focus of public health officials who a
Exam Three Textbook Questions
Which of the following statements describes a grassland biome?
A: Grasslands are biomes with abiotic conditions like fires that support the
growth of grass and herbaceous plants
EXAM ONE: RESOURCES GEOLOGY
CHAPTER ONE: ENVIROMENTAL LITERACY
1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE IS
B: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FIELD OF RESEARCH THAT SEEKS TO UNDERSTAND THE NATURAL
WORLD AND OUR RELATIONSHIP TO IT
2. ACCORDING TO THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENIUM ECOSYST
Exam 2 IClicker Questions
1. When trying to solve a public health problem, epidemiologists consider social and
cultural forces to be just as important as science because
B. Human behavior is often a key factor.
2. In low-income developing countries, _ are
Exam 1 Iclicker Questions
1. How long does it take to naturally form the fossil fuels we use to make gasoline?
a. Hundreds of millions of years
2. How old is the Earth?
a. 4.6 Billion years
3. How much of Earths surface is covered by water?
EXAM TWO VOCABULARY: CHAPTER 6-13
Chapter Six: Environmental Health
1. Waterborne disease: infectious disease acquired through contact with
2. Vector borne disease: infectious disease acquired from organisms that transmit
GEOS EXAM FOUR TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS
Which of the following is not true about coal?
B: it is difficult to ship
The purpose of mountaintop removal is to
C: gain surface access to coal
Emissions from a coal fired power plant includ
Exam 3 i>Clicker Questions
1. How do grasslands benefit from the presence of herbivores?
E) All of the above (grazing, waste deposits including manure and urine, hooves breaking up the
soil stimulating plant growth)
2. When too many grazers are in one are
Characteristics of Plate Boundaries
Number of Volcanoes by State:
In 2014 and 2015, there were a total of 81 vol