Review Quizzes
1. Sample surveys such as the General Social Survey and the Current Population Survey are
an important kind of:
a. Census
b. Observational Study
c. Experiment
d. Individual
(2-3) Brian gathers data from his classmates about the computers th
Review Quizzes
1. If a statistical study systematically favors certain outcomes, then it is called:
a. A voluntary response sample
b. A convenience sample
c. A simple random sample
d. Biased
2. American Idol asks viewers to call in to vote on their favori
2. Samples
Sampling is the selection and implementation of statistical observations in order to
estimate properties of an underlying population. Sampling is a vital part of many
statistical research including modern polling, market research, etc. The port
Chapter 2
Samples, Good and Bad
James F. Glasgow, Ph.D.
Malone University
Chapter 2
1
How to Sample Badly
Ambulance
Call-In phone survey
3763 total calls
638 from Ambulance Company Office
Others from Employee Families
Result was biased
As
they say i
April 22, 2014
Survey Analysis: Energy
Each student present in our statistics class on April 8, 2014 completed a survey on energy.
I do not think that the individuals in this survey that make up the sample give a reliable
representation of the entire popu
The Underlying Variables of Statistics
There was an understanding that this was a math course, but the real confusion was when this
also counted as a psychology course. As our group discussed, we discovered that we each had similar
ideas on what to antici
Statistics Project One
2/5/09
Introduction
Statistics are all around us and are used to describe, analyze, organize or predict data in
our day to day activities that we are involved in. These statistics can be used to either aide us in
coming to a final d
Statistics Project Three
4/19/09
I have been a runner for a couple years now and one thing that I have always heard is that
long distance runners have better discipline than other athletes which usually translates into
good grade point averages in school.
z-Scores
Chapter 5 & 6
Normal Distribution
Many variables are distributed with most
observations concentrated near the
center of the distribution. As you move
from the center, the frequencies of
observations then begin to decrease
above and below the cent
Measures of Central Tendency
Chapter 3
Definition of Central Tendency
The tendency for observations to center around a
particular value/category rather than being
dispersed across a range.
Identifies a single score as a representation of the
entire dist
Hypothesis Testing
Elements in Hypothesis Testing
1)
2)
3)
4)
Null and alternative hypotheses
Decision Making
Test statistic
Conclusion
Hypotheses
Definition of Hypothesis
A statement used in research to help clarify
the research question.
It is presente
Probability
The World of Chance?
Where are we going?
We have now completed our discussion of
descriptive statistics. We are now ready
for the fascinating world of inferential
statistics.
The basic aim of inferential statistics is to
use sample scores to m
t-Test for Independent Samples
A Case of Testing a Hypothesis
Our question is whether violent TV
programs cause children to become more
aggressive.
H0: Violent TV does not cause children to
become more aggressive.
H1: Violent TV causes children to beco
Analysis of Variance
ANOVA
t-Test vs. ANOVA
A t-test and ANOVA are applied to similar types
of data.
The drawback of the t-test is that it can only be
used in cases where there are two groups. In
many experimental situations two groups are not
enough to
Measures of Variability
Chapter 4
Definition of Variability
Variability is a measure of dispersion. That is, it is a
measurement of the degree to which scores in a
distribution are spread out.
There are at least two reasons why we would want to
measure di
Chapter 10
Graphs, Good and Bad
Chapter 10
1
Thought Question 1
What is confusing or misleading about the
following graph?
21
Interest Rate
20
19
18
17
16
15
Household
Bank
Central
Bank
Average
Bank
Chapter 10
CHOICE
VISA
2
Distribution
Tells
what values
Chapter 14
Describing Relationships:
Scatterplots and Correlation
Chapter 14
1
Thought Question 1
For all cars manufactured in the U.S., there
is a positive correlation between the size
of the engine and horsepower. There is a
negative correlation between
Chapter 9
Do the Numbers Make Sense?
James F. Glasgow, Ph.D.
Malone University
Chapter 9
1
Thought Question 1
In 1994, according to the Department of
Labor, the median salary for government
workers was $29,528, while the median
salary for private workers
Statistics
What is
STATISTICS?
Why do I need
STATISTICS?
Statistics
What is
STATISTICS?
Why do I need
STATISTICS?
Statistics
What is
STATISTICS?
Why do I need
STATISTICS?
Any benefit I can
get from a statistics
class?
Some resources:
http:/www.gallup.com
Stats Class Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
Chapter 1
Process of Statistics
Identify a research objective - Determine the question that needs to be answered
Collect Data - Identify group to be studied, do this through a sample, collect info from the
sample
Organize and
Chapter 3
Inferential Statistics - Use sample data to draw inferences about a population with an unknown
characteristic of interest. Probability is used as a basis for inferential statistics
Parameter & Statistic
Parameter - A numerical measure of a popu
Chapter 13
Normal Distributions
Chapter 13
1
Thought Question 1
Birth weights of babies born in the United
States follow, at least approximately, a bellshaped curve. What does that mean?
Thought Question 2
What does it mean if a persons SAT score
falls at
Chapter 3
What Do Samples Tell Us?
James F. Glasgow, Ph.D.
Malone University
Chapter 3
1
Sampling Terminology
Parameter
fixed, unknown number that describes the population
Statistic
known value calculated from a sample
a statistic is used to estimate
Malone University
Math-140 Statistics
James F. Glasgow, Ph.D.
Making Sense of Statistics
Statistics
About data
Data Numbers with a context
Context
Engages our background knowledge and allows us to
make judgments
Makes the number informative
Uses dat
Chapter 22
What Is a Test of Significance?
Chapter 22
1
Thought Question 1
The defendant in a court case is either guilty
or innocent. Which of these is assumed to be
true when the case begins? The jury looks at
the evidence presented and makes a decision
Chapter 21
What Is a Confidence Interval?
Chapter 21
1
Thought Question 1
Suppose that 40% of a certain population
favor the use of nuclear power for energy.
(a) If you randomly sample 10 people from
this population, will exactly four (40%) of
them be in