Ultimately, chemists dont feel comfortable until they can
answer the following questions about a chemical reaction:
What do I get when I mix A with B . . . ?
(Requires familiarity with the periodic table and stoichiometry)
How fast does i
What about solutions involving volatile or gaseous solutes?
We can still have unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated
A picture of a saturated solution:
ratio is 3 to 12.
Rate of gas dissolu
Rate laws for a wide variety of chemical reactions have
been studied and most chemical reactions fall into one of
Reactions that are first order overall.
Reactions that are second order overall.
FIRST ORDER REACTIONS
Example of ozone
Solution a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances.
Solute the material which is dissolved (less abundant)
Solvent the material which is doing the dissolving (more abundant)
These terms usually work well:
Mix NaCl (1g) and water (100
the terms boiling and evaporation are both examples of vaporization,
but the two terms are used differently.
the term conden
Intermolecular Attractive Forces
Recall the following:
atoms with high ionization energy are in the upper right.
atoms with high electron affinity are in the upper right.
We intuitively know that some naked atoms hold their
current electrons and
Dissolved solutes lower the freezing point of a solvent.
A picture of a liquid at its freezing point.
Rate of melting = Rate of freezing
Molecules leave the surface of the solid at the same rate they arrive.
(no net change in amount of solid)
Lecture / Lab Syllabus for . . .
Jeff Goff, Ph.D.
Chemistry, 11th ed., by
Raymond Chang and Kenneth
Laboratory Experiments, 13th
ed., by Nelson, Kemp