We sequence nuclear genes for everyone in the class and we find
that there are 2 alleles present in the population. The sequences of those alleles
differ a little bit.
Allele 1: GATCA TTCGAATCAT
Allele 2: AACCATTAGAATCAT
Alternative Forms of DNA
B-DNA- Right-handed double-helix, thought to be the biologically relevant form.
Z-DNA- Left-handed double helix.
o Discovered in an oligonucleotide that contained only Gs and Cs.
Its critical that
Human Identity Testing
1. Forensic Cases- Matching suspects w/ evidence
2. Paternity Testing- Identifying father
3. Mass Disaster- Putting pieces back together
4. Historical Investigations
5. Missing Persons Cases
6. Military DNA Dog Tag
Molecules that are actually involved in the replication itself are proteins called
DNA Polymerases. DNA is a polymer composed of repeating units, and the
proteins that actually build the DNA are polymerases, enzymes.
An enzyme that can s
DNA- At the same time Thomas Hunt Morgan was doing his research to try to figure
out what exactly in the cell is the genetic material. At the time most people thought it
Freidrich Miescher (1844-1895)
o From Basel, Switzerland
o He did th
Lab Techniques for Genetic Analysis
Read section on Gel Electrophoresis (p. 283, fig 9.3), then 297-311 (not fig. 9.15)
on PCR and DNA sequences (Google)
Hypolactosia (Lactose Intolerance)
Southeast Asia- 98%
Asian Americans- 90%
African Americans- 79
All of the DNA we have been talking about so far has been nuclear
DNA, but you have another genome in you, in your mitochondrion- haploid (no
heterozygotes), matrilineal (inherited from your mother), and circular.
Structure of DNA
Evidence that DNA is genetic material
People tried to come up with experiments to try to determine whether protein or
DNA was the genetic material.
One experiment compared the amount of DNA in gametes vs. somatic cells. The
gametes are ha
Population Genetics and Mutations
Study of genetic processes at the population level. A population genetics
study is usually a study of an individual species or sometimes a couple of closely
related species (human-neanderthal)
A branching diagram depicting the evolutionary relationships of a group of taxainstead of individuals.
A taxon (plural form is taxa) is a grouping of organisms. E.g. a
genus, a family, a class, an order.
Phylogeny of the family Hominida
Mutation means change in DNA or RNA. Mutations are the source of all variation we
see in all organisms. If it werent for mutations we would not evolve resistant to certain
diseases. Mutations can be bad- its the main reason we have to come up wi
Determine the DNA sequence
o load PCR into well (DNA has a overall negative charge)
o load ladder
o apply electric current
o Done Fluorescently/automated
Two steps1. Creating a series of DNA fragments that differ in size