Pest Control- chapter 18
substances that kill or control an unwanted organism
blocking a vital metabolic process
1,000,000,000 kg of pesticides/year in North America
In US ~50% a
Book - Chapter 12
111,000 km3 precipitation
70,000 km3 evapotranspiration
(evaporation + transpiration)
41,000 km3 runoff
8% of runoff withdrawn by humans
1 km3 = 1 x 109 m3 = 264 x 109 gal
how we learn that something is toxic?
Toxicology: study harmful effects of substance foreign to
organism e.g. inject/expose a mouse
Determine health history of a selected
group of peo
Nitrogen and Food Production
What are organisms made of ?
What chemical elements do they need?
Unique role in ATP
ATP ADP + Pi; DG ~ -30.5 kJ/mol
pKa < 7, so ionized at biological pH ~ 7
Hence, will not d
water as a solvent
Unique properties of water
high boiling temperature (cf HF)
expansion upon freezing
crystal structure of ice
Mixing of oil and water: favorable based on free energy!
Water pollution and water treatment
What is water pollution?
easy to identify, evaluate and regulate
Nonpoint sources very difficult to evaluate/regulate
What types of water pollution do you know?