High Land costs
High land costs in the CBD (more than
$1,000,000,000 per acre in Tokyo) have led to
intensive use of the land that is available.
Cities often have underground networks,
and subways to facilitate the movement
of the masses.
In addition, the
Filtering- the process of subdividing homes by successive
waves of increasingly lower-income people.
Redlining- the practice of some banks of drawing lines on a
map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan
the process in
A unique combination of social relationships and
Each region = a distinctive landscape
People = the most important agents of change to
Density of Population
Total pop/total lan
Basic Development and not
Basic = brings money into an urban place
- shifts money within the city, but doesnt bring money
The optimal location for a business is one in which it has
the most number of peo
Chinese = most spoken (as a first language)
Indo-European languages = 50% of languages spoken in
Tree Branch group language
Physically designating a city is even more difficult.
Various methods are used, sometimes interchangeably,
-Legal definition of a city.
The area of urban settlement that has
Toponyms- place names
Site- location based on characteristics
Situation- relative location
Communication, transportation, trade
The most important cause of sprawl is the automobile.
More than any other invention,
it has increased the daily range of people, and
thanks to highways,
people can live many miles from their job, and
commute everyday in their private vehicle,
Bon Thunens Model
The example shows that a farmer would make a profit
growing wheat on land located less than 4 kilometers from
Beyond 4 kilometers, wheat is not profitable, because the
cost of transporting it exceeds the gross profit.
Coal and Steel
Industry = textile
Fueled by mercantilism and capitalism
Average educational levels
Standard of living
Total value of outputs of foods and services produced
in a country over