Limb Deformities Notes:
Angular Limb Deformity (ALD)
-deviation of the appendicular skeleton in the frontal plane
Abnormal angulation AWAY from mid-sagittal
Abnormal angulation TOWARD mid-sagittal
Valgus (outward) rotation of the
study of hormones, their receptors, and the signaling pathways
chemical messenger, secreted by one cell, a group of cells, or an organ, and carried by the bloodstream
to another tissue.
molecules that bi
Diagnostic Analgesia Notes:
Palmar Digital Nerve: needle/mL?
Where is the needle inserted in a Palmar Digital Nerve
-directly over palmar aspect of palpable neurovascular bundle
-1 cm above cartilage in the foot
Cranial Nerves Notes:
sense of smell
sense of sigh
Hyaline cartilage of synovial joints.
-deepest layer: mineralized
A wasting away or dimunition in the size of a cell, tissue, organ or other part.
Relating to the central p
Bone is both.
-rigid and elastic
Proportion of inorganic salts to organic fibrous tissue
-age (increased age = increased amount of inorganic, rigid bone)
What are some signs of neurological defects?
Collapsing or sinking on a limb, knuckling, hyperflexion, spasticity, hesitance in changing strides/gaits,
dragging toes, landing hard, leaning, failing to walk straight
If a horse consistently has an abnormall
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
rate at which urine is filtered through the glomeruli of the kindney
a compact cluster of capillaries
impaired renal function
a horse may loose 50% of GFR and still maintain homeostasis
no urine output
T/F: More energy is dissipated on ground contact in feet
that have thin cartilages of the foot.
T/F: In feet with a low heel and a long toe, more of the
energy of impact is transferred to the bone and the hoof
wall laminae, as the cartilages of the
Endocrine Disease Notes:
abnormal multiplication of cells; leads to enlargement
increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and
the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia / b