The modern synthetic theory of evolution
It includes the following factors (1) Gene mutations (2) Variation (Recombination) (3) Heredity, (4) Natural selection and (5) Isolation.
In addition, three accessory factors affect the working of these five basic
The radius is an autopodium.
Clavicle A. Pectoral
The tibia is an epipodium.
Ilium is pelvic
he humerus is a propodium
Attaches the fins and limbs to the axial skeleton
Pectoral Pelvic Both
Describe the structure of the typical fish
vertebra and relate to the general cross-sectional
anatomy of the fish.
_ List the subdivisions of the vertebrate skeletal system.
_ List and describe the components of a typical shark
_ Describe the ge
Distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic muscles. _ Recognize and give examples of each.
Extrinsic appendicular muscles:
Muscles that arise on the axial skeleton or trunk fascia and insert on the girdle or limb.
Begin development from blastemas withi
VISCERAL SKELETON (or SPLANCHNOCRANIUM)
skeleton of the pharyngeal arches
Fishes - skeleton of the jaws & gill arches
Tetrapods - skeleton modified for new functions
Fish visceral skeleton - consists of 7 sets of paired cartilages in the 7 visceral arches
consists of pectoral & pelvic girdles plus skeleton of fins & limbs
Some vertebrates have no appendicular skeleton (e.g., agnathans, apodans, snakes, & some lizards) & in others it is much reduced.
1 - brace for ant
The Vertebrate Skull consists of:
Neurocranium: protects the brain: begins as cartilage that is partly or entirely replaced by bone (except in cartilaginous fishes)
neurocranium begins as pair of parachordal & prechordal cartilages be