1. What is the historical basis for Brace declaring that Race is a social construction?
- Race is whatever people think it should be even though it has no basic biological reality
- Biological differences do exist and can be studied, but only after the co
Cultural Evolution Makes Us Victims of Our Own Progress
Is destroying our life support systems
Benefits a few elites at the expense of others
Is energy efficient
Destroys local communities
Has separated us from nature
1. How does ecological denial differ from honest disagreement?
- Ecological denial is the willful dismissal or distortion of fact, logic, and data in the service of
ideology and self-interest. For example, the churchmen of the 17 th century who refused to
1. How has human variation been explained historically?
- Through divine creation, diabolical intervention, and the interaction of heredity and the
2. Why is human variation difficult to study?
- Human families are small compared to the how lo
Why Call it Biocultural?
It is the study of the interaction of human biology, culture, and ecology
Culture is shaped by biology
Culture shapes human biology
Culture and human biology must adapt to biophysical environment
Why are Humans a Bioc
Major Characteristics of the Biocultural Approach to the Study of the Human Species
It considers both biological and sociocultural aspects of the human condition
It is diachronic, dealing with humans both in the past and present
It stresses the comparativ
In What Ways Has Anthropology Been Sometimes Misused by Anthropologists,
Government, Museums, and the Media?
Often has aided the subjugation and exploitation of colonized people
Fieldwork often benefits only the anthropologist and not the people studied
Biological Characteristics Related to:
Erect Biped Posture
Short, broad, flaring pelvis
Broad, wedge shaped sacrum
S-shaped vertebral column to absorb shock
Head balanced on vertebral column with foramen magnum well forward
Graceful neck for flexibility
A group within a larger culture that shares a specific cultural pattern that differs
from that of the larger culture core
- Leads to differences in enculturati
Techno-Industrialization WWII to Present
What are Some Characteristics of the Techno-Industrial Era?
Rise and spread of suburbs
Depopulation of rural areas
Growth of a culture of consumption
A throw-away society
Hunting and Gathering (4.5 m. to 10,000)
What was the Social Ecology of the Early Hunters and Gatherers?
Small, nomadic groups
Intensive use of resources
Did not own resources
Much sharing of resources
Flexibility was the key ; mobile seasonal movement -
What is meant by the Concept of an Ecosystem?
The total of living organisms and non-living substances that interact within a demarcated portion
of the biosphere
What are the 4 parts of an ecosystem?
1. Producers green plants
1. Why is erect biped posture considered a master adaptation that set in motion a great
Erect biped posture contributed to a great social evolution because it gave individuals the
ability to carry and monitor infants. Th
1. Differentiate ecosystem people from biosphere people.
- Ecosystem people live within a single ecosystem or, at most, two or three adjacent, closely
related ones. They must include most members of traditional cultures and are more
responsive to environm
Characteristics of Culture (General)
All humans have a biological capacity for culture
Humans could not exist without it
All cultures have equal potential, none are more advanced or less primitive
The culture concept was developed as:
- An alternative to
A Long Period of Infant and Child Development
Long gestation period to insure survival
Improved placental efficiency
Human infant is helpless at birth
Human infants remain virtually helpless for a longer period than any other species
Greater brain develop
Anger and Aggression are Natural
The tendency toward anger is a glandular apparatus (biological)
Cultural values determine under what circumstances it is turned on
Anger might be useful in defense of the group or self
A capacity for aggression and co-oper
Differentiate the Anthropological Study of Human Variation:
Old School studied:
- What people looked like
- Racial classification
- Racial history
New School studies: (1962 AAA Address by Washburn)
- Why people vary
- Study individual variation
- To stres
I. The American Holocaust
Early Population of Natives
European falsehoods about demography
1. That native population density was very low
2. Indians lived under primitive cultural and economic circumstances savages!
Large populations woul
Three Factors Necessary to Sustain Life
2. Biogeochemical cycles
3. Transformation of energy from the:
- Sun to plants to animals
1. Oxygen (21%)
- 4% increase most woodlands would burn up after the next lightning strike
What is Racism?
The belief that real or perceived biological differences between groups are a legitimate
basis for differential treatment of groups
Levels of Racism
Individual racism: Racist beliefs and actions practiced by an individual