The Problem of the
Since at least the time of Descartes in the seventeenth century there has been a philosophical
problem about our knowledge of the world
around us. 1 Put most simply, the problem is to
show how we ca
The Myth of the Given
Roderick M. Chisholm
1. The doctrine of "the given" involved two theses
about our knowledge. We may introduce them by
means of a traditional metaphor:
(A) The knowledge which a person has at any
time is a structure or edifi
The Intentiona/izjy of perception
access, to it. The experience has a kind of directness, immediacy and. f
mvoluntariness which is not shared by a belief I might have about .
' the-object in its absence. It seems therefore unnatural to describ '
G.E. MOORE: SELECTED WRITINGS
PROOF OF AN EXTERNAL
In the Preface to the second edition of Kant's Critique of Pure
Reason some words occur, which, in Professor Kemp Smith's
translation, are rendered as follows:
It still remains a scandal to philos
Chapter 6 Taking Life
The Embryo and Fetus
The Conservative Position
1. A central argument:
1) It is wrong to kill an innocent human being.
2) A human fetus is an innocent human being.
3) It is wrong to kill a human fetus.
2. Issue: whether a fetus is
Map of Peter Singer Chapter 2
1. Singer aims to explain the ethical foundations of equality and its implications. He argues that
we should adopt the principle of equal consideration of interests as our principle of equality.
2. The principle of equal cons
Haack: A Foundherentist Theory of Empirical Justification
The Case for Foundherentism
1. Foundationalism: an empirical belief is justified iff it is either a basic belief justified by
the subjects experience or else a derived belief justified by the su
Chapter 4 Whats Wrong with Killing?
Basic Ideas of the Chapter
1. Two sense of human being:
1) Biological sense a member of the homo sapiens species can be determined
scientifically by an examination of the nature of the chromosomes in the cells of
Chisholm: The Myth of the Given
- Argue for Foundationalism
1. Three theses:
A) Knowledge as structured: every statement is justified in part by some statement which
B) The foundation of knowledge is the given, i.e., sense data/appearanc