1950 Civil Rights Movement, Took it to the streets
Success of Montgomery Bus Boycott inspired Dr. King to continue forth with nonviolent
direct action 1955-1965
Dr. King basic philosophy was nonviolent action
Dr. King praised Gandhi because he was the fir
April 2, 2012
Sit ins and Freedom Rides
-Philosophical Roots and Factors of Student Activism
- The Nashville Student Movement- look at Diane, One of largest and most Successful
- Founding Of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - new found
Had a different speech prepared but then famous singer said to tell the people about his
His speech was extremely inspirational
March ended in a great way
No one was hurt
Violence persisted else way
18 days 1963 16th street Baptist chur
On April 12, 1963 the money was used to get people out of jail, Good Friday, they
decided to do another march toward the business district and 50 people were arrested. Media
cameras catch everything that was going on.
Dr. King was put on solitary confinem
Using children between 6-18
Stir the Nations conscious
Next phase, day 1 900 children are arrested
They did get a response from the Kennedy Admin.
Bobby K. calls King and argues that the children could be seriously hurt by
Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal
Philip Randolphs March on Washington
Founded largest black union
Helped in its fight to become a bargaining agent for the brotherhood of sleeping car
Later served as first black president of CIFCIO
Rudy Smith says that nonviolent adds courage, nonviolence was a way to bridge the
young people and the old people together
Bible Act 1726, God is made of one blood. They got the idea that mobilization will use
brotherhood for the freedom rides and etc.
Marion Berry- first chairmen
Julian Bond- communication director
James Forman- Chicago school teacher, severed as the executive Secretary.
Charles McDew- replace Berry
Robert BOB Moses- Graduate phil. Student helped make campaigns
Snick= veterans of the Nashville Student Movement
8 black students and 2 white students went to Birmingham to continue the rides; they
were willing to die for this. Jon Lewis arrested more than 200 times, Diane Nash was a part of
Wanted to get Ke
The Birmingham campaigns
Gave 28 speeches
Gathered volunteers for Project C
Raised about 75.000 of bail money
Did not know exactly where they were going
Cornered by the Police
Baptist Church in Birmingham 16th street, hea
The Civil Rights Act 1964
Ralph D. Abernathy- in jail with King and helped with Project C
Wyatt T. Walker
Sixteenth Street Baptist- headquarters for King and the movement to march down onto
the business district
W.E.B Du Bois and the Niagara Movement
Wrote he wanted separation to stop
Claim the right of free men to walk, talk, and be with whomever they wish
No one has the right to decide another mans friend
The March on Washington
Make sure the bill would take place
Happened in 1941
President Kennedy tried to call off the March because it would cause violence
The civil rights movement to schedule this march would be the black community
UNIA- had made a huge movement of over a million people throughout the west United States.
Had people from India and Africa.
Even before 1966 the novelist Richard wick and congressman called for black power.
Very key issues that failed to be addressed by
First black and white organization in country
Perused civil rights and justice for all people
Race riot broke out in Springfield, IL clearly indicated that race was not a southern issue
but a national issue
W.E.B Dubois resigned a
T. Eugene Bull Connor- called out the fireman to use their hose. Has no remorse at all.
Director of public safety. He is pissed when segregation is allowed.
Medgar W. Evers
I Have A Dream- left everyone
The double V Campaign
Unify, encourage, reflect black opinion with regard to WW2
Continue to set the tone of the NAACP
Wrote to a newspaper and said he did not mind going to war for democracy
Wanted to see the right of civil rights go forth
Media was a great help, but now they are not showing the violent images
Promoting white support but black leadership
Black power began to bump with white power and begin to get violent and it was difficult
to gain the type of support.
Urban black youth wh
Many thought freedom rides would come to an end but Snick decided that they would
continue the freedom rides, intended to be a two week test turned into being an all summer into
the fall test of the case.
Snick= veterans of the Nashville Student Movement
7 blacks 6 whites leave DC to travel through the South to meet in New Orleans May 17
1961 leave on busses. Forman wanted an interracial group ride to see how it would turn out, in
Alabama one bus was completely burned and wanted the riders to burn to deat
Black Nationalism - member of a group of militant Black people who urge separatism from
white people and the establishment of self-governing Black communities.
Black power- was a reemergence of Black Nationalism
Pan-Africanism- phrase coined by man below
Began to demand employment for faculty and staff.
FBI wire taping and etc.
In May of 1970 the killing of several students at Kent State
While king remains nonviolent he agrees that there are some valid arguments being made
that advocate black power, posse
*Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka- clearly signaled the board of change. 1952 not until
1954, four other cases added to this case. Made it a class-action suit= did not apply to only
brown situation, but would apply to all of the schools in US. Thoug
*Civil Rights Act 1957- could prosecute if black rights were not held up to. Clearly see that the
entire govt. (all branches) is now on board of enforcement of civil rights. Implication was
another question, immediately there was South resistance.
Foundations of the Modern Civil Rights Movement, 1990- 1954
*National Association of the Advancement of Colored People- NAACP
*Harry S. Truman- setting up blue ribbon interracial committees, hopefully which congress will
- did what he could
Fisk University in Nashville. Diane Nash decided to sit in at the same change. Started
feeling the power of the idea of the time whose has come. Feb 1960 had mobilized over 200
people for sit-ins in Nashville major stores. James Lawson had gone
DR. King met with other men developed a plan of attack on segregation in Birmingham
Laid out a campaign of desecration of Birmingham
SCLC targeted three main businesses
George Wallace won Gov. and he uttered the word segregation today, segregation
Ella Baker- from NYC, and was a social worker. Sent to Shaw University to provide
council. Discussion took place whether SCLC should continue to sponsor of have new
foundation. Began SNCC because they wanted a faster pace and goals need to be performed
Dr. Kings letter from Birmingham Jail
Classic piece, Protest Literature
Say it is the most important document in the Movement
Begins by telling his critics that they are here because there is no alternatives
They have a reason to be there, and bef
*Emmett Till Incident- 14 yr. old boy visiting relatives in Miss. when he was murdered.
*Montgomery Bus Boycott- Rosa Parks to the front and would not move to back. Launched Dr.
Kings career. Most people think it started here
Roosevelt- made cosmetic chan