what is the regulation of enzyme activity?
control of enzyme availability
control of enzyme activity allosteric effectors
ways of enzyme regulation:
association with regulatory proteins
genetic control (synthesis)
What is a molecule that reversibly binds to a protein?
A site on a protein which is complementary to the ligand in size, shape, charge,
hydrophobic, and hydrophilic character
Interactions between protein and ligand are very _
How many heterocyclic rings do purines contain?
How many ring nitrogens do pyrimidines contain?
How many heterocyclic rings do pyrimidines contain?
How many ring nitrogens do purines contain?
Is adenine a purine or pyrimidine?
Is thymine a
Glycine - 1 letter
Alanine - 1 letter
Valine - 1 letter
Leucine - 1 letter
Isoleucine - 1 letter
Methionine - 1 letter
Proline - 1 letter
What are the four levels of protein organization?
1. Amino acid residues
3. Polypeptide chain
4. Assembled subunits
What are some of the general approaches to disrupting cells in protein purification?
- Osmotic lysis
- Chemical degradation of the
glycolysis is the _biochemical pathway
most completely understood
glycolysis is a sequence of _ in which _ is converted into _ compound
pyruvate with the concomitant generation of _.
10 enzymatic reactions
1 molecule of glucose
2 molecules of 3-carbon
substrates that reduce an enzyme's activity by influencing the binding of substrate
and/or turnover number are called?
inhibitors act through a variety of what?
what are the two types of inhibitors
irreversible inhibitors or inactiva
A knowledge of thermodynamics allows to determine _but does not indicate
that the rates at which possible processes actually occur.
whether a physical process is possible
Thermodynamics in biochemistry is most frequently concerned with describing
is the study of the rates at which chemical reactions occur
the major purpose of the study of kinetics is to gain the understanding of the reaction
mechanism which is?
a detailed description of the various steps in a reaction process and the sequ
the reasons for control of metabolic flow:
to provide products at the rate they are needed, to balance the supply with
to maintain the steady-state concentration of the intermediates in a pathway
within a narrow range (homeostasis)
elucidation of t
the endergonic process that maintains the living state are driven by.
the exergonic reactions of nutrient oxidation
this coupling is most often mediated through the synthesis of a few types of _
whose exergonic consumption drives endergonic processes.
When G is _, the reaction is spontaneous
What are the two forces that all chemical reactions are influenced by?
1. The tendency to achieve the most stable bonding state (lower enthalpy)
2. The tendency to achieve the highest degree of randomness