And as State is to State in virtue and happiness, so is man in relation
To be sure.
Then comparing our original city, which was under a king, and the city
which is under a tyrant, how do they stand as to virtue?
They are the opposite ex
dwelling within him; or, if this be impossible, then by an external
authority, in order that we may be all, as far as possible, under the
same government, friends and equals.
True, he said.
And this is clearly seen to be the intention of the law, which is
Yes, that was said.
Now then, having determined the power and quality of justice and
injustice, let us have a little conversation with him.
What shall we say to him?
Let us make an image of the soul, that he may have his own words
presented before h
Yes, he said, that is quite what the maintainer of justice say.
And so from every point of view, whether of pleasure, honour, or
advantage, the approver of justice is right and speaks the truth, and
the disapprover is wrong and false and ignorant.
That, he said, is an easier task; and I have made them as you say.
And now join them, and let the three grow into one.
That has been accomplished.
Next fashion the outside of them into a single image, as of a man, so
that he who is not able to look within
There appear to be three pleasures, one genuine and two spurious: now
the transgression of the tyrant reaches a point beyond the spurious; he
has run away from the region of law and reason, and taken up his abode
with certain slave pleasures which are his
And if you raise the power and make the plane a solid, there is no
difficulty in seeing how vast is the interval by which the tyrant is
parted from the king.
Yes; the arithmetician will easily do the sum.
Or if some person begins at the other e
And the greater the interval which separates them from philosophy and
reason, the more strange and illusive will be the pleasure?
And is not that farthest from reason which is at the greatest distance
from law and order?
And the lustful and
And must not the like happen with the spirited or passionate element of
the soul? Will not the passionate man who carries his passion into
action, be in the like case, whether he is envious and ambitious, or
violent and contentious, or angry and disconten
To this nobler purpose the man of understanding will devote the energies
of his life. And in the first place, he will honour studies which
impress these qualities on his soul and disregard others?
Clearly, he said.
In the next place, he will regulate his
And men are blamed for pride and bad temper when the lion and serpent
element in them disproportionately grows and gains strength?
And luxury and softness are blamed, because they relax and weaken this
same creature, and make a coward of him
That appears to be so.
Then about the imitator we are agreed. And what about the painter? - I
would like to know whether he may be thought to imitate that which
originally exists in nature, or only the creations of artists?
As they are or as t
God knew this, and He desired to be the real maker of a real bed, not a
particular maker of a particular bed, and therefore He created a bed
which is essentially and by nature one only.
So we believe.
Shall we, then, speak of Him as the natural author or
If you please.
Well then, here are three beds: one existing in nature, which is made by
God, as I think that we may say - for no one else can be the maker?
There is another which is the work of the carpenter?
And the work of the painter is a thir
Very good, I said, you are coming to the point now. And the painter too
is, as I conceive, just such another - a creator of appearances, is he
But then I suppose you will say that what he creates is untrue. And yet
there is a sense in whic
Who is he?
One who is the maker of all the works of all other workmen.
What an extraordinary man!
Wait a little, and there will be more reason for your saying so. For
this is he who is able to make not only vessels of every kind, but
plants and an
To what do you refer?
To the rejection of imitative poetry, which certainly ought not to be
received; as I see far more clearly now that the parts of the soul have
What do you mean?
Speaking in confidence, for I should not like to have
Why not? for the duller eye may often see a thing sooner than the
Very true, he said; but in your presence, even if I had any faint
notion, I could not muster courage to utter it. Will you enquire
Well then, shall we begin the enquiry in
or public, which are likely to disorder his life, he will avoid?
Then, if that is his motive, he will not be a statesman.
By the dog of Egypt, he will! in the city which is his own he certainly
will, though in the land of his birth perhaps not, unless he
And does the essence of the invariable partake of knowledge in the same
degree as of essence?
Yes, of knowledge in the same degree.
And of truth in the same degree?
And, conversely, that which has less of truth will also have less of
more really and truly enjoy true pleasure; whereas that which
participates in less real being will be less truly and surely satisfied,
and will participate in an illusory and less real pleasure?
Those then who know not wisdom and virtue, a
individual soul, like the State, has been divided by us into three
principles, the division may, I think, furnish a new demonstration.
Of what nature?
It seems to me that to these three principles three pleasures
correspond; also three desires and governi
No man of any sense will dispute your words.
Come then, I said, and as the general umpire in theatrical contests
proclaims the result, do you also decide who in your opinion is first in
the scale of happiness, and who second, and in what order the others
And amid evils such as these will not he who is ill-governed in his own
person - the tyrannical man, I mean - whom you just now decided to be
the most miserable of all - will not he be yet more miserable when,
instead of leading a private life, he is cons
Is there any State in which you will find more of lamentation and sorrow
and groaning and pain?
And is there any man in whom you will find more of this sort of misery
than in the tyrannical man, who is in a fury of passions and
Who is that?
He who is of a tyrannical nature, and instead of leading a private life
has been cursed with the further misfortune of being a public tyrant.
From what has been said, I gather that you are right.
Yes, I replied, but in this high argument you
protection of each individual.
Very true, I said. But imagine one of these owners, the master say of
some fifty slaves, together with his family and property and slaves,
carried off by a god into the wilderness, where there are no freemen to
help him - wi
prevail? his soul is full of meanness and vulgarity - the best elements
in him are enslaved; and there is a small ruling part, which is also the
worst and maddest.
And would you say that the soul of such an one is the soul of a freeman,
to judge, and has dwelt in the same place with him, and been present at
his dally life and known him in his family relations, where he may be
seen stripped of his tragedy attire, and again in the hour of public
danger - he shall tell us about the happines
Suppose we call it the contentious or ambitious - would the term be
On the other hand, every one sees that the principle of knowledge is
wholly directed to the truth, and cares less than either of the others
for gain or fame.