For the hydrogen atom, as n increases, does the spacing of adjacent
energy levels on an energy-level diagram increase or decrease?
Determine the Concept Examination of Figure 35-4 indicates that as n increases,
1. In terms of hearing sounds, what is the purpose of (a) the outer ear, (b) the middle ear, and
(c) the inner ear?
(a) The outer ear collects the sound and channels it to the eardrum.
(b) The middle ear transfe
Applications of the Schrdinger Equation
Sketch (a) the wave function and (b) the probability density function
for the n = 5 state of the finite square-well potential.
Determine the Concept Looking at the graphs in the text
Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics
[SSM] The quantized character of electromagnetic radiation is
observed by (a) the Young double-slit experiment, (b) diffraction of light by a
small aperture, (c) the photoelectric
Interference and Diffraction
A phase difference due to path-length difference is observed for
monochromatic visible light. Which phase difference requires the least
(minimum) path length difference? (a) 90o (b) 180o (c) 27
Can a virtual image be photographed? If so, give an example. If not,
Determine the Concept Yes. Note that a virtual image is seen because the eye
focuses the diverging rays to form a real image
Properties of Light
[SSM] A ray of light reflects from a plane mirror. The angle
between the incoming ray and the reflected ray is 70. What is the angle of
reflection? (a) 70, (b) 140, (c) 35, (d) Not enough information is
Maxwells Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
The displacement current has different units than the conduction current.
Displacement current only exists if the electric field in the region is
changing with time.
A coil in an ac generator rotates at 60 Hz. How much time elapses
between successive peak emf values of the coil?
Determine the Concept Successive peaks are one-half period apart. Hence the
[SSM] (a) The magnetic equator is a line on the surface of
Earth on which Earths magnetic field is horizontal. At the magnetic
equator, how would you orient a flat sheet of paper so as to create the
Sources of the Magnetic Field
Sketch the field lines for the electric dipole and the magnetic dipole
shown in Figure 27-47. How do the field lines differ in appearance close to the
center of each dipole?
Picture the Proble
The Magnetic Field
[SSM] When the axis of a cathode-ray tube is horizontal in a region
in which there is a magnetic field that is directed vertically upward, the electrons
emitted from the cathode follow one of the dashed
Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits
In our study of electrostatics, we concluded that no electric field exists
within the material of a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium. Why can we
discuss electric fields wi
If the voltage across a parallel-plate capacitor is doubled, its
capacitance (a) doubles (b) drops by half (c) remains the same.
Determine the Concept The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is a
[SSM] A proton is moved to the left in a uniform electric field that
points to the right. Is the proton moving in the direction of increasing or
decreasing electric potential? Is the electrostatic pote
Would you expect NaCl to be polar or nonpolar?
Determine the Concept Yes. Because the center of charge of the positive Na ion
does not coincide with the center of charge for the negative Cl ion, the NaCl
In the classical model of conduction, the electron loses energy on
average during a collision because it loses the drift velocity it had acquired since
the last collision. Where does this energy appear?
1. What vibrates to produce the sound in (a) a stringed instrument, (b) a wind instrument,
(c) a percussion instrument, and (d) an electronic instrument?
one or more vibrating strings
one or mor
1. What is the source of vibrations in a reed instrument?
3. What mainly determines the pitch of (a) a soft reed, (b) a hard reed?
(a) the resonance tube
(b) the reed
6. On what is the classificati
1. What are the natural modes of vibration of a system? How are they related to the boundary
conditions? To the initial conditions?
The natural modes of vibration are the ways that the system can vibrate with si
1. What are the three ways that strings are set vibrating in a stringed instrument?
plucking, bowing, striking
3. Why does the pitch of a string depend on its length?
The length determines the fundamental
2. What is an input impedance curve?
a graph of acoustic impedance (the ratio of acoustic pressure to acoustic flow rate) at the input
(mouthpiece) of a wind instrument, versus frequency
4. Should the input imp
1. What are the three main elements of music? Briefly describe each one.
rhythmthe beat; the time element of music
melodythe tune; a sequence of notes following each other
harmonynotes sounded together
2. How a
2. How do the physical and physiological/psychological definitions of sound differ?
The physical definition only includes the sound wave; the physiological/psychological definition
includes the detection of the
1. What is a wave? A transverse wave? A longitudinal wave?
A wave is a traveling disturbance. In a transverse wave the particles of the medium move
perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. In a long
2. What is a node? An antinode?
A node is a point on a standing wave were the medium doesnt vibrate. An antinode is a point
where the medium has its maximum amplitude vibration.
3. In what way is a standing wave
1. What are the acoustic similarities between a hammered dulcimer and a piano?
both use multiple strings; in both the strings are set vibrating by striking them with a hammer; in
both the amplification is by a
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe
How are baryons and mesons similar? How are they different?
Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e.,
they participate in the strong
Isotopes of nitrogen, iron and tin have stable isotopes 14N, 56Fe and
Sn. Give the symbols for two other isotopes of (a) nitrogen, (b) iron, and
Determine the Concept Two or more nuclides with
[SSM] The approximate total energy of a particle of mass m moving
at speed u < c is (a) m c2 + 1 mu 2 , (b) 1 mu 2 , (c) cmu, (d) mc2, (e) 1 cmu .
Determine the Concept The total relativistic energy E of a