A _ is a region of DNA that controls a discrete hereditary
characteristic of an organism, usually responsible for specifying a single
protein or RNA molecule.
The human genome is estimated to contain about _ genes.
- Rankthe illowing types efcell signaling
signaling in which the sigral molecule
travels the least distance and 4 the type of
signaling in 1which the signal molecule
travels the largest distance-
_3_ pamcrimE signaling
. The plasma membrane functions as a
- cfw_b sensor through which the cell receives
- cfw_e site for uptake of macromolecules into
cfw_a selective barrier to the passage of
signals om the environment.
id! All ofthe above
Chapter 9: How Genes and Genomes Evolve
Evolution = generating genetic variation
Basic types of genetic change in evolution
o Mutation within a gene: a mutation changes a single nucleotide or
deletes or duplicates one or more nucleotides, can
Chapter 8: Control of Gene Expression
Genes are expressed when cells use blueprint in the gene to build a particular
worker molecule in the cell.
Different cell types of a multicellular organism contain same DNA.
o Cells have ability to change w
Actin filament form from a chain of globular actin molecules
Cell cortex actin-rich layer responsible for cell-surface movements
Centriole short cylindrical array of microtubules, found in centrosome
Centrosome microtubule-organizing center, separates to
Clathrin protein that makes up the coat of transport vesicle.
Coated vesicle small membrane-enclosed organelle with a cage of proteins on cytosolic surface
Cytosol contents of the main compartment of the cytoplasm
Endocytosis uptake of material
Adaptation Adjustment of sensitivity of cell
Adenylyl cylcase form cyclic AMP from ATP
CaM kinase phosphorylates target proteins in response to an increase in Ca2+
Calmodulin small Ca2+ binding protein that modifies target enzymes
Cell signaling cell dete
Antenna complex capture light energy
ATP synthase membrane associated enzyme that catalyzes formation of ATP during oxidative
phosphorylation and photosynthesis. Found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, bacteria
Carbon fixation green plants incorpo
Anaphase chromosomes separate and move away from the other
Anaphase-promoting complex (APC) promotes desctruction of specific proteins by using ubiquit
Apoptosis cell death
Aster star-shaped system of microtubules from centrosome
Bcl2 family either promot
Cell and Molec
Midterm One Study Guide
-Optical electrons: use light
-Archaea can survive harsh conditions (radically different from
-Polysaccharides make up cell walls
-Lipids make up call membranes
All 3 of those are ma
BI 314 extra credit
Paul Wender Seminar Summary
The lecture given by Dr. Paul Wender discussed a variety of different scientific fields and
how they all relate back to the molecular level. To demonstrate his point about molecules, Dr.
Week9 Study Problems
Chapter 20 Extracellular matrix, Chapter 17 Cytoskeleton
1. In plants, how does the structure of the cell wall depend on the endomembrane
system? A function of the endomembrane system is secretion; synthesizing
Week 8 Study Problems
Chapters 11, 12 (a little of 20) and 15
1. What are the general functions of cellular membranes? Consider both the lipid
and the protein components. The lipid bilayer serves as a barrier to the flow in or
out of a cell of
Week6 Study Problems
1. Describe three mechanisms that regulate the activity of cyclin-dependent
1) Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) have to form a complex with a cyclin to be active.
Week7 Study Problems
1. What are the three types of protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton?
Intermediate filaments (lamins, keratins, neurofilaments, vimentins), microtubules
built from / heterodimer
Week5 Study Problems
1. How can two different cell types exposed to the same signal respond differently?
Tow different cell types, each with a receptor for the same signal, can respond
differently because the two c
R5 Problem: Checkpoints Worth 5 points
Answer the questions below as a group. Sign your name and hand in to the TA.
The cell cycle is a controlled sequence of events that starts With Group Members Present
growth (G1 phase), then makes a copy of each genom
Lecture MWF 2-2:50pm
Design your own Cancer Drug
Breast cancer is one of the more common types of cancer seen in the U.S. today
as it affects about 1 in 8 women which translates about 12%. Breast cancer usually
begins in the lo
Endocrine signaling- produce hormones, secret signal into bloodstream
Paracrine signaling signal molecules diffuse locally through the extracellular fluid (ex. Regulate
Autocrine signaling cells produce and respond to their own sig