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Southern Oregon School Information

School Facts

  • Operating Status: Currently operating

    Campus: Main campus (and distance learning)

    Institution Type: 1

  • Degree Type:

    Highest Degree —Master's Degree

    Predominant Degree —Graduate

    Distance Education: On-campus and Online




Admission Selectivity and Test Scores


Average SAT Score Range

  • 1,320-1,710
  • 1,515

  • Average Score



Average ACT Score

  • 18-26
  • 22

  • Average Score

Admission Requirement
Secondary School Record Secondary School GPA Secondary School Rank Letters of Recommendation Admission Test Score AP Credits
Required Required Not Recommended Not Recommended Required Yes


Graduation Rate
  • 16%

  • 32%

  • 34%

Degree Details

Available Fields of Study and Degrees

  • > Accounting
  • > Acting Bachelor's Program
  • > American Indian/Native American Studies
  • > Anthropology Bachelor's Program
  • > Anthropology, Other
  • > Art/Art Studies, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Biology/Biological Sciences, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Botany/Plant Biology
  • > Business Administration and Management, General Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > Business, Management, Marketing, and Related Support Services, Other Bachelor's Program
  • > Business/Commerce, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Chemistry, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Computer and Information Sciences, General Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > Criminal Justice/Safety Studies Bachelor's Program
  • > Drama and Dramatics/Theatre Arts, General Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce
  • > Early Childhood Education and Teaching Bachelor's Program
  • > Economics, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Education, General Master's Program
  • > Educational Leadership and Administration, General
  • > Elementary Education and Teaching Bachelor's Program
  • > English Language and Literature, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Environmental Studies Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > Finance, General
  • > French Language and Literature Bachelor's Program
  • > Health and Physical Education/Fitness, General Bachelor's Program
  • > History, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Human Resources Management/Personnel Administration, General
  • > International Business/Trade/Commerce
  • > International/Global Studies Bachelor's Program
  • > Junior High/Intermediate/Middle School Education and Teaching
  • > Management Information Systems, General
  • > Mathematics and Computer Science Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > Mathematics, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Mental Health Counseling/Counselor Master's Program
  • > Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, Other Bachelor's Program, Master's Program
  • > Music, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Parks, Recreation and Leisure Studies Bachelor's Program
  • > Physics, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Political Science and Government, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Pre-Medicine/Pre-Medical Studies Bachelor's Program
  • > Psychology, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Secondary Education and Teaching
  • > Social Sciences, General Bachelor's Program
  • > Sociology Bachelor's Program
  • > Spanish Language and Literature Master's Program
  • > Speech Communication and Rhetoric Bachelor's Program
  • > Teacher Education and Professional Development, Specific Levels and Methods, Oth Master's Program
  • > Teacher Education, Multiple Levels Bachelor's Program
Highest Degree Continuing Professional Programs Academic and Career Counselling Services Employment Services for Students Placement Services for Graduate Study Abroad
Master's Degree Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Tuition, Cost and Financial Aid

  • Undergraduate Tuition
    • In-State Tuition (2014-2015)


    • Out-of-State Tuition (2014-2015)


Undergraduate Costs of Attendance
  • On—Campus
    • Total In-State Cost


    • Total Out-of-State Cost


Financial Aid — Freshmen Students
Type of Aid No. Receiving Aid % Receiving Aid Total Aid Received Average Aid Received
Any Student Financial Aid 490 82% $305,720.00 $4,189.00
Grant Aid 393 66% $2,094,482.00 $2,231.00
Student Loan - 59% $157,848.00 $4,604.00
Financial Aid — Undergraduate Students
Type of Aid No. Receiving Aid % Receiving Aid Total Aid Received Average Aid Received
Any Student Financial Aid 2,805 51% $16,027,607.00 $5,714.00
Pell Grant Aid 2,117 38% $8,738,287.00 $4,128.00
Student Loan 2,616 48% $19,989,431.00 $7,641.00
Net Price
Year Income < 30K Income 30K — 48K Income 48K — 75K Income 75K — 110K Income > 110K
2014-2015 $11,325.00 $11,093.00 $13,802.00 $17,390.00 $17,964.00
2013-2014 $10,779.00 $13,292.00 $13,731.00 $16,303.00 $17,173.00
2012-2013 $10,231.00 $11,256.00 $14,046.00 $15,483.00 $16,324.00


Student-Faculty Ratio

21 : 1

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Endowment per FTE Enrollment


per student


Source: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Institute of Education Sciences, 2014 - 2015

Course Hero, Inc. does not independently verify the accuracy of the information presented above.

Southern Oregon Documents (1,598)

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  • 37 terms




    Avoid telling the truth

    • SAT Vocab_257
    • 37 terms
    • Vocabulary for SAT Vocab_257. Find, create, and access SAT, Causality, Concepts in metaphysics, offensive language, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 27 terms


    Vertical Analysis


    Provides a way to compare different companies. Shows the relationship of each item to its base amount, which is the 100% figure.

    • BA213 Midterm Review
    • 27 terms
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  • 5 terms




    Kenneth Burke, Attitudes Toward History Short Summary: (Burke: Our attitude/style is framed within a frame of acceptance and determines our name for a situation which in turn determines a course of action;  this can explain Leuchter and holocaustolators--both of whom construct symbollic structures designed to induce acceptance; we can get vocabulary clusters that indicate the frames) Introduction:  Book is about how attitudes form and deform human communities; the "characteristic responses (attitudes) of people in forming and reforming congregations."  Accent in book is on the word attitude.  History means "man's life in political communities."  People, in general, want to communicate and be in communities.  Hip-Hop is the formation of a congregation: what does this mean politically?  It means people speak of a demographic with commercial influence.  political influence?  What is the "attitude" of hip-hop? Acceptance and Rejection: Deals with most basic of attitudes--Yes, No, and Maybe--and how these attitudes are Symbolized. William James said, we either accept the universe or protest against it.  He wanted to be a meliorist, neither pessimistic nor optimisitc.  Both-And.  Acceptance/Rejection are determined by how we name a situation (evil = eradication; mistaknen = correction) which in turn is determined by our attitudes.  Thus, we start from the problem of evil and lesser evils--anguish, injustice, disease, and death--and so one adopts a notion of the universe and attitudes that help him deal with these evils.  He deems things friendly or unfriendly and then moves to action, but this action is first determined by how he sees/names the situation.  Thus, naming prepares us for some functions and against others, for or against people representing those functions.  The names suggest a course of action.  Thus call a man a villain and you have the choice of either attacking or cringing.  Call him mistaken and you invite yourself to attempt setting him right.  Thus, "villain" and "hero" are tragic names; "tricked" and "intelligent" comic.  Frames of Acceptance are then the organized system of meaning by which a thinking man gauges the historical situation and adopts a role with relation to it (5).  They set the lines for the battle (20).  Thus, there is rarely passivenes, just different frames of acceptance.  So the bourgeois frame "rejected class morality by accepting the doctrine that the resources of private initiative were equally available to all." Rejection is a byproduct of acceptance, it stresses a shift in allegiance to symbols of authority 21.  Thus, Marx uses rejection language to get new symbols--anger of slaves, etc.  As historical frames near the point of cracking, 23, strained by new factors, its adherents employ its genius casuistically (??) to extend it as far as possible."  Look at this page, 23, because it certainly applies to the logic of racial norms of behaviour.  Page 24 looks at an example of how ambition went from a bad thing to a good one--good Monty doc stuff.  What does this say about the wigger?  Is there a discernable attitude?  What about rejection--yes to white, no to black?  Acceptance: All symbolic structures are "designed to produce "acceptance" in one form or another 20.  William James adopted the philosophical trinity of "rationality, activity, faith."  Faith feeds power of action; rationality gives a method.  He always wanted to move to a better state.  He went for more instead of all.  Whitman's cluster: immortality, brotherhood, work, I, democracy, "answering," air-sweetness, life-in-death. 18--Great quote from "Compensation."  The Curve of History: History is the study of man's life in political communities and why/how they form or don't form those communities.  Charts problems of merger and division, with corresponding profusion of orthodoxy, heresy, sect, and schism.  Looks at Western Culture as a five act play.  Moving from the individual to the collective, he calls it "Collective Poems."  Or a move from the poetic to the historical. Christian Evangelism (111): ACT I--The situation out of which the action will arise.  Inherits prior dramas, grammars of thought.  You can't get a world without organization--the relationship thus comes to a head with mobility and immobility.  The General Nature of Ritual: (179) Looks at the irony whereby a group's routines become rituals and its rituals become routines; or when poetic image and rhetorical idea are fused. Why the word ritual?  What's ritual vs. routine?  How is it different than ritual as defined elsewhere?  Is the everyday--ritual or routine? We always try to tinker symbolically.  We erect symbolic sytheses--a rationale of imaginative and conceptual imagery that "locates" the various aspects of experience.  The symbolism guides or gives "cues" to social purpose.  The individual follows symbolism to figure out what to get, how to attempt getting it, and how to "resign himself" to "renunciate" the things he can't get (Ali G to the hippie). People or groups (like bankers) use the symbolic structure's (system of currency) areas of resignation for profit as long as people tolerate it.  A different symbolism of purpose can change the tolerable to the intolerable.  Those who benefit from the system may not benefit consciously.  We are compelled to tanscend or symbolically merge because of conflicts that reach crisis among values in social concerns.  We transcend the crisis among values in social concerns by the following possibilites: Accepting or rejecting authoritative symbols Key: What is the wigger accepting or rejecting?  Could values be like equality?  Equal-rights versus.  Equal-Opportunity?  Individually construct symbolic justifications to bridge the gap between his private impulses and the social norms.  Burke explains that since these justification are only symbolic, actual conflicts may remain and in moments where the "transcendence" does not work ("untrascendent moments" he calls them), their crisis pressure is felt.  This is what I think Errol Morris means by "dream worlds" that his characters create--Leuchter.  Does Leuchter have "untranscendental moments?" We integrate the rational experience of waking life with the incongruous perspectives of sleeep.  He says that perhaps, in waking life, we are symbollicaly trying to "fix" or "correct" our "crimes" from sleeping life.  Dreams we remember, we "debunk" rationally or we exonerate them through ritual. What does he mean when he uses the word ritual?  Are they everyday symbolic structures? "Chaos" is the unconscious; "Cosmos" is the conscious.  Freud wanted to extend "Cosmos" as far as possible into "chaos."  Some people think organizing our conscious may lead to the unconscious--Greek society as the cosmos and outer societies as chaos; consciousness as a "homeopathic magic," for unconscious; Thus, by organizing cosmos, chaos may also be organize.  The Marxist lesson, however, we must remember is that the "chaos" may pervade the "cosmic" and even deprive us of it.  (this is clearly along the lines of blackness) How does this work with idea of Foreigners?  Isn't this a systemic question and couldn't it be applied to whites and blacks.  (Thus, chaos is blackness; cosmos is whiteness) .  184: One has various moods and attitudes, these are called "sub-identies."  The poet attempts to bring them together in a symbolic superstructure that creates a "super-personality."  The world always has disparate elements that must be ritualistically integrated.  There is no conflict when we shift from one mood to another, just change.  However, if we shift from one attitude to another, and that original attitude had been rationalized, then there must be conflict in change. The natural tendency of the symbolic enterprise is toward integration.  And when people don't fit in the bureacratic mode, there is an attempt to symbollically cover that up and to obscure rather than clarify such demarcations.  Is this true?  What about art that leaves people antagonistic?  In terms of obscuring demarcations, this is the huge problem with race.  Look at black America and the number of people who go to prison and are murdered and then look at Eminem and Colin Powell who operate in a way to "symbollically" bridge the races and therefore obscured the racial underpinnings of our superstructure.  Artists and critics alike tend to operate within the favorable paradigm of the society or state.  This is most obvious in socialistic or communitic countries.  However, this does not mean that they are insincere in their writings or art. (Why not, 186).  Artists are specialists--like dentists--but in the art of communication and therefore when they develop their trade sometimes they develop it to the point when they can't communicate with the layman. 191: A study of symbolism is annoying, because it requires us continually to be "off the subject."  Mountains aren't just mountains, sewers aren't just sewers... We get cues to the "non-realistic" or "symbolic" by: 1) order or sequence which discloses function: the trend of a plot for example may show that the mountain is a transition--a point of rebirth--where the author transcends a previous conflict.  We note the tenor of the imagery.  The simplest is the "naive rationalism of the allegory" where a concrete symbol=abstraction.  Morality plays for instance.  Symbolism as a formal school--Surrealism as an offshoot--is concerned with the "subjective overtones of objects" and they are put together with reference to an order that transcends the order prevailing in everyday life.  (Great.  Editing does this no matter what!)  Thus, they don't follow the "tests of everyday experience" and instead the same emotional overtones.  Like when Chirico puts horse, statues together.  Imagism is halfway between realism and surrealism.  (Nice, think of docs and Maya Deren!).  The imagist focuses on the "photographic" attributes of an object, yet the object is singled out for attention because the poet feels that it is "more than" its literal self. (Could this apply to a character who is both individual and general?)  He may not, however, specifically attempt to locate the symbolic overtones.  He may not be sure what these "unseen existences" are: especially if he lacks a thoroughly rounded frame of interpretation like Whitman possesed in his vision of democracy.  Joyce's Ulysses works in accordance with symbolic overtones or free imagery that hover about their edges; it "utilizes allegory for the mechanical organization of the plot;"  that is, he locates (in naive rationalism) modern equivalents for the Odyssey.  But this brings him far beyond allegory, into halfway ground of imagism, and finally to surrealism.  Thus, we see why pure realism must always carry the reader beyond it.  We always look for the pattern of selectivity--why the artist chose this instead of that--his "social attributes" are found to "transcend" his "realistic individuality."  "The poet's selectivity is like the selectivity of a man with a tic.  He squints or jerks when some words are spoken, otherwise not.  You disclose the "symbolic organization" of his tic when you have found the class of words that provokes it."  The mere fact of putting adjectives or verbs with nouns.  Thus images are kin and that symbolic or non-realistic kinship, where an author contives his selectivity and his plot's development from-what-to-what, may often be revealed in associative clusters of his symbolism.  Metaphorical analysis is reading clusters of imagery.  The work of art is a symbolic act of synthesis and reflects the individual's unique response to his situation.  Yet threre are others with like situations. The fact that art is a symbolic synthesis makes it difficult for those who want to break it down by conceptual analysis.  199: The synthetic symbol can be divided into conceptual components ad infinitum.  Therefore, critics may read conceptually into something not intended....( interesting.  Could this be said for everything?  Also, this is why Bloom says Shakespeare is so important...) The critic gets his tests of selectivity through the pragmatic tests of use.  He chooses those that he finds important for social reasons.  A given material order of production and distribution gives rise to a corresponding set of manners.  The equivalent in poetry of manners is style.  Style is the ritualistic projection or completion of manners.  Manners thus adopt to the productive order and sometimes conflict with formerly "bureacratized" manners.  Of course, readers vary in their ability to feel the work's general bearing upon vital situations outside the work. We believe that such matters as authority symbols, identification, acceptance and rejection, rituals of purification and rebirth, transcendence upward, transcendence downward, character-building by secular prayer, the collective poems of socio-economic organization, bureacratization of the imaginative, alienation, and repossession, are at the very basis of both esthetic and moralistic strategy.  202: "We would inspect them in the symbolic acts of art, because of our belief that art is the dial on which fundamental psychological processes of all living are recorded.  The poetry exchange is to human living as a whole what the stock exchange is to production and distribution under capitalism.  A slight fluctuation in carloadings may register, on the stock exchange, as a big fluctuation in the price of securites.  And similarly, the tenuous fluctuations of impulse that apply in practical life may show as wide fluctuations in the "poetry market."  There is a man who is very smart but under certain conditions makes the most idiotic and pugnacious assertions that are beyond all reason.  Seeing this rediculous conduct, we assume that the conditions must have another meaning than their purely "rational" meaning.  He meets new people not on their merits but on the basis of some likeness to people he met in the past.  These furtive analogies are conditioning his responses in ways that the mere ideological issues under consideration could not account for; they put him into a corner, forcing him for the time into sectarian compensations, as he meets a new situation in terms of old quarrels that are irrelevant.  This fault could even cause him harm.  If he could use critical conceptualization to locate the set of conditions that negative incite him (the past analogies), he could "discount" them.  This to Burke is what a "psychology of art" should perform, "as it sought to locate, on the recording of the 'poetry exchange', the processes of social commerce operating in life as a whole." Mr. Death!  Errol Morris' films--why do we do this?  Wiggers: rationally not black.  THIS IS MY MANIFESTO AS AN ARTIST! 209: The Main Components of Ritual: The organization of a work reflects the poet's acceptance or rejection of symbols of authority.  Flat rejection is counter-authority.  If he accepts it, then he uses "tragic ambiguity" to exorcise the criminal through symbolic punishment.  Authortiy symbols: church, state, society, political party, craft.  He must negotiate these with his particulars: rudiments (tables, charis, attic, cellar, food, excretion, animals), peculiarities of sense (qualities of voice, the sound of rain and wind), formative events (accidents, illnesses, Christmas, excursions, dreams), intimate relationships (parents, relatives, nurses, teachers, priests, doctors, policemen).  "Symbolic Regression" is that the poet must draw on these, the personal or "autistic" (pre-political).  Thus, when rejection is uppermost, it is symbolic parricide and when acceptance is uppermost it is incest awe, with symbolic castration. Attitudes toward history--TERMS C335 Abstract: "Abstractions are but fossilized metaphors" (12).  And such metaphors at strategic places--like the beginning and the end--may reveal the temper of man's work, his motive for philosophizing.  Zizek calls money the sublime, so couls we say that abstractions are the sublime? Alienation (143): When terms don't apply any more, people begin to feel alienated.  They then move to another.  There is also, sometimes, a "stealing back and forth of symbols." (216) When a person feels that his world is "basically unreasonable."  Alienation can either be spirtual or material.  The proletariat is materially alienated if he is deprived of the goods which his society deems normal.  He is spirtiually alienated insofar as his material deprivation leads him to distrust the society's premises.  Those who are materially benefitted can become spirtually dispossed by losing belief in soceity's resonableness.  Knowledge can also induce spiritual alienated.  People try to combat alienation by immediacy... (can Norman Mailer's exegesis of the role of the Negro be linked to a way to fight alienation in what he calls a society living under crisis of the atomic war?  I think so.  Thus, the wigger could be seen as a response to alienation from what and link how?  It seems that the logic of blackness in society operates according to this stereotype of immediacy--Jazz, Blackface, Rap, Freestyle--even Al Jolson's street spirituality seems to operate according to immediacy. (Watching the movie BUDDY, what is the nature of spirtual alienation?  What led them to spirtual alienation--the asshole character, video games, rap music... rap music is the key here; the only rationale behind the reason for thei anger; drugs also; but look how they drink their 40s; okay, also the suburbs is a rationale, a sense of alienation; where families aren't close; also sexual abuse of women;).  Page 217, something about how alienation increases the proportion of mobility in society, which must be matched by a conceptual mobility of a sort not possible in rigid ideologies.  219: A pattern of manners works according to a productive pattern.  Ambtion: (258) "Maximum opportunity for expression of the sentiments.  Distrust of passions.  The passions are ambitious.  They are stimulated tot he maximum by the "creative psychiatry" of capitalism.  In an ideal society, a man would not got to a doctor when he lacked ambition--he would consult a doctor to help him cure ambition.  In the paradoxes of capitalism, inordinate ambition has become the norm; the man who loses it simply drops out.  And he loses it as soon as he ceases to want all sorts of idiotic baubles that keep millions franticallly at work." Attitude/Attitudinizing: If we feel happy on three different occasions, those occasions are attitudinally linked.  Avoiding Inanition, Getting Struggle: (125) We must earn our inheritance by taking it as the basis of a new problem.  We can't confront it as a "goes before," but instead, as a "goes after."  Malraux: "If a man says that he loves people, it means something. But if at Lenin's death, they say he loved the people, the statement is profound."  Bandwagon Theory of History (114): When a dominant state begins to influence states that are close in proximity and then everyone else because the possibility of not cooperating is just too difficult. Being Driven into a Corner: 221: Occasionally when making a comment, an enemy will tell them that they are making the same comment as the Nazis.  Burke says this is being driven into the corner, response is can we not use arithmetic because the Nazis used it.  Bridging Device: 224: The symbolic structure whereby one transcends a conflict in one way or another.  Authority is grounded in custom because the distinction in status was established by custom.  The Marxist promises to recognize the conflict, which he transcends by a philosophy of history that is a bridge into a classless society of the future.  Bureaucratization of the Imaginative: Gide said that he distrusts the carrying out of one possibility because it necessarily restrictrs other possibilites.  Call the possibilites "imaginative." And call the carrying-out of one possibility the bureacratization of the imaginative.  Thus, the imaginative is the moment of ideal, the enaction of it the bureacratization.  When we bureacratize, we never reach the idea.  Even capitalism, unless every single social interaction was reduced to financial exchange.   Science, he says, is the bureacratization of wisdom.  His idea of "perspective by incongruity" is a parallel methodology of invention.  Casuistic Stretching: (229) When one introduces new principles while theoretically remaining faithful to old principles.  In "tragic ambiguity," whereby a new trend is given its first expression in the role of a reprobate.  The court fool introduced serious views causuistically.  (This is interesting.  I think the logic of blackness is to play this role--the reprobate that introduces new ideas but is then disciplined and pushed out.  This is Rogin's whole argument about jews becoming American by excluding blacks.)  Burke wants us to use planned incongruity to our advantage.  Clusters: Significance gained by noting what subjects cluster about other subjects (what images b, c, d the poet introduces whenever he talks with engrossment of subject a).  For example, a certain person may be a great popular idol, but this does not mean that his popularity belongs to the same cluster that makes him President.  Thus, we have certain things associated with blacks, whites, stars, republicans.  Burke says that if we chart clusters, we get cues in "symbolic mergers."  Comic Frame: Comedy is Burke's attitude of attitudes; Bureacratization is Burke's process of processes--it moves away from its material corresponents and becomes alien to the original, spiritual.  Also looks at how an idea can start in the imaginative and then move to the bureacratization.  So, in bureacritization, war can become peace, a heroics of war (look at how black American comedians talk about war, Bill Clinton) and the "most idiotic tragedy conceivable."  Thus, Burke preaches for the Aristophanic assumptions which put tragedy with war and comedy with peace. One sees this in Racial categories that have a scientific, process-oriented sense to them.  KEY for Paula Paper; Clinton Communion: (234): Communion involves the interdependence of people through their common stake in both co-operative and symbolic networks.  Malinowski had a term called "phatic communication" which was designed solely to establish a bond.  Stereotyped greetings, comments on the weather, polite inquiries about health, gossip, where people malign an absent friend, not so much because of a vindictive attitude towards the absent, but as a way of making friends.  Socrates used this but he pressed it until so annoying that people felt like killing him.  There are also appearances of communion that function to exlcude--such as the church man that forgives a man for putting a cup on a table all the way to the point where he has killed the guy's character through sympathy.  Control: To seek control of evil, you either attempt to eliminate or you channelize it.  What we do with lightning is channeling.  Naive liberals try to eradicate it.  How does this apply to the Holocaust and to Bush, etc.? Earning One's World: There is no state of leisure.  Every inheritance must be earned anew and if it isn't then you get alienation and demoralization.  Unemployment and employment are not absolute opposites; they are graded series wherein one is always moreorless employed or unemployed.  The opportunities for employment are best when the coordinates of society seem most reasonable to its members.  Efficiency (248): He speaks of relative to essentialism; Aesthetics was the search for beauty and once found, a formula of how to get it; it works opposite to "practical impurity."  War becomes an efficiency in organizing society completely in favor of war.  Essence: An act has either cooperative or competitive features.  You select one as the essence.  Done for glory or done for self-interest.  The comic frame accepts both--a moral act should be cashed in upon.  Eulogistic Covering: When one says I do this for society, but knows that he is not.  Forensic: Good Life: Guilt and Middle-Ages (128): Acquiescence by intensifying the sense of guilt but also creating rituals which could disabuse it through social acceptance.  "Guilt is misery and misery loves company... so in joining other men in prayer, man could absolve himself."  They eliminated "either-or" with a "both-and:" one is not saintly or corrupt, one is both saintly and corrupt. Persuasion vs. Force: Persuasion is better than force.  A company hires a psychologist to cure its workers from "neuroses."  The workers must be frank.  They must say for example if they thought of joining an outside union.  Thus, if they bought into, or believed that the temptation to join a union was neurotic, then he could only hope to be cured.  Thus, psychology depends on an acceptance of the premises.  One is not white or black, one is white and black; could this be compared to Lefebvre's signals? Heads I Win, Tails You Lose: (260):  Things that no matter how things turn out, the system accounts for them.  Related to the relationship between essence and existence.  A thing has many qualities--good, bad, indifferent--you transcend them when you vote one as its essence.  When you have voted the essence, everything else is an accident.  Burke says that he wants to find the "essence" of motivations and everything else is an "accidental" variant.  If you say man is a warrior--like Nietzche--then you find warrior-like tendencies even in love.  Thus, Heads I win, Tails you lose, is a "technical equivalent of the formula names moralistically as "opportunism."  Thus, Perspective by Incongruity is a heads I win, Tails you lose stratedgty.  For example, in Palme-Dutt's "planned incongruity," he calls Fascism, "the organization of decay."  In the pliancy of this term, you can't lose: accent organization or accent decay and you have different meanings.  Burke says, in addition to this strategy, philosphers should also admit to their "master metaphor" that determines their conception... Burke's is "Man as communicant." Identity, Identification: Bueorgois nationalism made us think identity was private.  This is KEY to wigger.  In this process, they also said that collective identities were illusions... and thus we get the psychotic.  So what about "wannabes?"  Burke says that its normal.  One may break him away from some particular identifications.  But you just can't remove the identification; The man who dies in battle is better off than the man who can't identify with anything; thus, one only gets cured if one gets an "alternative identification."  264: "The so-called 'I' is merely a unique combination of partially conflicting 'corporate we's'"  Sometimes these work well together, sometimes not.  "Identification is nothing other than the name of 'sociality',"   Sometimes people are really speaking of "bad identification."  Also, one must realize that sometimes, "the modest man can indulge in the most outrageous 'corporate boasting',"  Thus, the white kid's boasting of gangsterism in that murder movie--Buddy.  We also see this in the music lover who clamorously admires a certain composer and therefore "shares vicariously" in the composer's attainments.  "Vicarious boasting" leads to matters of "epic heroism" and euphemistic" vocabularies of motives.  But "divine heroism" like the admiration of Jesus or God, inspires humility in its followers, who know they will never match that greatness.  Without the divine, secular heroriism erases humility because it "is by definition, a hero whom one can emulate, and even surpass."  "Such changes of identity occur in everyone.  They become acute when a person has been particularly scrupulous in forming himself about one set of coordinates, so scrupulous that the shif to new co-ordinates requires a violent wrenching of his earlier categories."  He gets his perspective by this shift in coordinates.  A man "identifies" the logic of a human purpose with the following points d'appui: God, nature, community (lodge, guild, race), utility (capitalism, and naive pragmatism), history.  Sometimes he tries the self, along with punishments of the narcissistic.  (What we call "identity with the self is often merely vagueness of identity."  The traveller who lives in transit.  The anthropologist.  "One who experiences difficulty in remembering names of close acquaintances when introducing them might console himself somewhat by noting that such sudden forgetfulness indicates sensitiveness to the subtleties of identity." Imagery: (282) If a man climbs a mountain, not through any interest in mountain climbing, but purely because he wants to get somewhere, and the easiest way to get threre is by crossing the mountain, we need not look for symbolism.  But if we begin to discuss why he wanted to get there, we do get into matters of symbolism.  For his conceptions of purpose involve a texture of human relationships; his purposes are "social"; as such, they are not something-in-and-by-itself, but a function of many relationships; which is to say that they are symbolical.  Symbolic acts are related to identity.  285: "all symbolism can be treated as the ritualistic naming and changing of identity (where a man fits himself for a role in accordance with established co-ordinates or for a change of role in accordance with new co-ordinates which necessity has forced upon him."  This is great in understanding interviews in documentaries and also the wigger and the interest in "wannabe:" that is the wigger, wants to be something else, and this reflects social purpose.  Justification and the Need for Struggle (124): "Priviledges can also be an impoverishment."  "By the economy of the body, people are endowed to struggle.  If they do not struggle, they rot, which is to say they struggle in spite of themselves."  "Give them leisure and they may suffer from being psychologically unemployed."  The need for struggle is linked to the need for justification.  One must prove he is right--by aesthetic, or logic--one must make himself feel that he is at home in the world.  Thus, people buy refrigerators and commodities to show that they belong.  Advertisers play on the need to "justify" or "belong," no matter how enlightened their sense of human motivations may be.  Poetic Categories (34): Argued that each poetic category builds up its own style of mental equipment (attitudes, meanings, character) to handle significant events.  The Epic: Under primitive, pre-capitalistic conditions.  It makes men feel at home in conditions of war by magnifying the warlike hero, advertising courage.  (WW II stories for example like Saving Private Ryan)(Monty worked in opposite, not an epic hero, but perhaps tragic? maybe not) Tragedy: More complex, urban, sophisticated than the Epic.  Arose as business individualism reigned and the poets at the time were conservatvie and preaching older values.  Comedy, Humor, the Ode:  "Like tragedy, comedy warns against pride, but it shifts from crime to stupidity."  It is based upon seeing people not as evil or vicious, but mistaken.  The audience can see the errors that the characters in the play don't see.  "Comedy deals with man in society, Tragedy with the cosmic man."  Comedy is heroic, but humor is not.  Humor sinks the situation.  43.  It's happy stupidity.  Negative Emphases (the Elegy or Plaint): Sometimes people master the technique of complaint and do not leave that frame.  The Holocaust as a collective symbol for Jews Satire: The satirist attacks in others what he dislikes within himself.    Burlesque: It is a "reduction to absurdity."  Instead of trying to get inside his enemy, he goes after the external and exagerates.  It drops any consideration of "mitigating circumstances."  Converts a manner to a mannerism.  This is not a well-rounded frame because of its partiality.  This seems to be the fram operating in parody of white blacks? The Grotesque: Focuses on mysticism; the didactic is propaganda. When there is great confusion over cultural frames, mysticism prevails.  It emphasizes the subjective over the objective/public elements.  Discomfitures of Rejection:  Sometimes our terms are rejected because of overlap.  We may say down with capitalism, but someone doesn't associate it with economy, but apple pie.  Then the question is how to keep it focused on economy and the smell of apple pie going our way.  Well Rounded Frames: Serve as an amplifying device.  104 talks about the Stealing Back and Forth of Symbols.  This is relevant to paper.  Sentimental Acceptance of Futurism (31-33): By simple reversal, calling the ugly beautiful, war great, futurism simply switched the names.  "Were the streets noisy?  It could counter by advocating an uncritical cult of noise.  Might there be stench?  It would discuss the "beauties" of stench.  Apparently active, it was in essence the most passive of frames, an elaborate method for feeling assertive by a resolve to drift with the current."  Burke preached instead, a well-rounded frame of acceptance with constant thinking, reflection, determination.  The futurists, he said, were gluttonous, a blanket endorsement of historic trends.  "A cult of yea." Shifts in Connotations (118): This is always a key area to find out when "curves of history" take place.  Anthropologists discuss the shifts around males "buying" brides. Discusses shifts relative to "servile" and "liberal."  An interesting shift: In 19th Century, for the Polish the word "servitude" meant the right to take firewood from the lord's estate.  In denying him this right, one denied him his "servitude," because of the ambivalent in the concepts.  Today, now, the "right" to sell one's services has become the "need" to sell one's services.  The ironic shift was implicit in bourgeois liberalism, when one "freed" the serf of his bondage to the soil by alienating his customary rights to use the soil. (I don't quite get this, but very interesting)  Then we get the French adage, "The homeless man under the bridge is as free as the man of great wealth."  Thus, we get Marx's observation that "freedom" obtained through wages is a "wage-slavery." I would argue that what I want to encourage is a shift of history in relation to race--defined as a discourse.  Universal Tragedy vs. Factional Tragedy: 188-- In footnote, makes a distinction between a "factional" and "universal" tragedy.  The universal tragedy is a stylistically dignified scapegoat that represents the "everyman."  In his offence, he takes the guilt of all and receives the punishment of all.  We identify with his weakness--pity--but dissociate from his punishment--terror.  "The dissociation, however, coexists with the association.  We are not onlookers, but participants."  The "factional" scapegoat is closer to satire.  Its subtler forms are in the psychology of war, where each camp blames its own sadism on the other.  The two are distinguished also in "practical action" and "tragic catharsis."  The latter heals all and brings us to a clean slate.  The former blames only some.  However, he then questions whether a "sanitary theory of art" is sufficient to explain the esthetic function.  Can art fully in support of "sanitation," be a satisfactory solution?  By depriving anti-social trends of all expression, it would not supply "catharsis" by providing for their symbolic relase and punishment.

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