All the organisms in a given area along with
the abiotic factors with which they interact
(a community and its physical
Two fundamental processes of any
Lymph Transport and Immunity
The Lymphatic System
Consists of lymphatic vessels and the
Three main homeostatic functions:
Lymphatic capillaries take up and return
excess fluid to the bloodstream.
Lacteals receive lipoprotein
WHAT IS MOST STRIKING HERE?
Compare the Banding Patterns:
WHY COLORED TIPS?
A substance that cannot be broken down to
other substances by ordinary chemical
Composed of only one kind of atom
92 naturally occurring
CHNOP and S make up about 98% of living
Number of p
the science of life.
A VIEW OF LIFE
How is life defined?
1. Living things are organized.
The whole is more than the sum of its
Each level has emergent properties
that are due to interaction between
How is life defi
Evolution and Diversity of Plants
Characteristics of Plants
Multicellular eukaryotes with well-developed
Autotrophic by photosynthesis
Nearly all are terrestrial; a few have returned
Stems and leaves are generally coated with a
Meiosis and Sexual
Mitosis maintains the same chromosome
number in the daughter cells as were found
in the original cell.
Meiosis (or reduction division) reduces the
chromosome number from 2N to N during
Biotechnology and Genomics
The use of living organisms or their
components to do practical tasks or to
provide useful products.
This is not a new idea:
-humans have used microorganisms to
produce wine, cheese, yogurt
Introduction to Invertebrates
Characteristics of Animals
Are multicellular, and most have cells
specialized to form tissues and organs.
Are heterotrophic and usually acquire food by
ingestion followed by digestion.
Have the power of motion or l
Control of Growth and Responses
Plant growth toward or away from a
unidirectional stimulus is called a tropism.
Positive is towards stimulus.
Negative is away from stimulus.
Phototropism - Light
Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into
the chemical energy of a carbohydrate.
Heterotrophic organisms use organic
molecules produced by photosynthesizers
as a source of chemical energy.
Figure 10.2 F
Figure 50.x1 Patterns of distribution in the biosphere
Figure 50.11 Solar radiation and latitude
Figure 50.12 What causes the seasons?
Figure 50.13 Global air circulation, precipitation, and winds
Figure 50.14 How mountains affect
Body Fluid Regulation and Excretion
Body Fluid Regulation
An excretory system is involved in
regulating body fluid concentrations.
Dependent upon concentration of mineral
ions such as sodium and potassium.
Water can often enter the body throu
Evolution of Protists
Complexity and diversity of protists makes
them difficult to classify.
Cannot be classified as plants, animals,
Has been suggested protists could be
split into as many as a dozen kingdoms.
Characteristics of Fungi
Nutritionall are heterotrophs and acquire
nutrients by absorption. Cells release
digestive enzymes and then absorb
resultant nutrient molecules.
1. Saprophytes or decomposers
2. Parasites (many pathoge
Support Systems and Locomotion
A fluid-filled gastrovascular cavity, or a fluidfilled coelom, can act as a hydrostatic
Offers support and resistance to the
contraction of muscles for mobility.
Annelids are segme
Figure 55.23 Biophilia, past and present
Studies all aspects of biodiversity with the
goal of conserving natural resources for
A primary goal is the management of
Cell Structure and Function
Definition: The unit of structure and function of
all living things. OR
The smallest unit of living material capable of
carrying on all the activities necessary for life.
1. Bacteria1-10 micrometers
Digestion and Nutrition
Figure 41.10 Intracellular digestion in Paramecium
Figure 41.11 Extracellular digestion in a gastrovascular cavity
Functions of a Digestive Tract:
Breaks food down into small molecules
that can cross plas
Classification of Living Things
Classification is usually based on our
understanding of of how organisms are related to
one another through evolution.
Taxonomythe branch of biology concerned with
identifying, naming and classifying org
Defined as observable and coordinated
responses to environmental stimuli.
Ethologythe science of behavior
Ethologists ask what does an animal do and
how does it do it?
Must avoid anthropomorphismattributing
Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea
Figure 18.1 Comparing the size of a virus, a bacterium, and a eukaryotic cell
Viruses (Latin, poison)
Size 20-200 nm
Always have at least two parts:
-an outer capsid composed of protein
Gas Exchange Surfaces
Respiration is the sequence of events that
results in gas exchange between the bodys
cells and the environment.
Gas Exchange Surfaces
For diffusion to be
Figure 9.1 Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems
Figure 9.5 An introduction to electron transport chains
A cellular process that requires oxygen and
gives off carbon dioxide.
Most often invol
The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction
Why do cells divide?
1. For reproduction (in one-celled
2. For growth and development
3. For replacement of worn out or damaged
Body or somatic cells2N or diploid
Advantages of Coelom
Protostomes and deuterostomes are
differentiated according to three major
events in embryological development.
Spiral cleavage in protostomes.
Radial cleavage in deuterostomes.
Advantages of Coel
Transport in Invertebrates
Invertebrates Without a Circulatory System
Each cell can independently exchange
gases and rid itself of wastes.
Open or Closed Invertebrate Circulation
Two types of circulatory fluids:
Blood - contained
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 1)
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 2)
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 3)
Figure 32.3 One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated prot
Hormones and Endocrine System
Chemical signals that act between
individuals are termed pheromones.
Work at a distance between individuals,
organs, or locally between adjacent cells.
Studies have shown that a womans
All the chemical reactions that occur in a
Can be divided into:
a. catabolismbreaking down reactions
b. anabolismbuilding reactions
Figure 6.1 The complexity of metabolism
Energy-the ability to do