The distribution of phonemes
How do languages differ?
By inventory of phonemes.
By distribution of phonemes.
(By variations in realization of phonemes)
Two sides to the same problem
Distribution of phonemes in a language
Once weve characterized where
Why learn about spectrograms?
Features of sounds.
Connection between language and
Praat is useful in linguistics and language
Plays MP3 and WAV sound files. (Foreign
Types of phonological change
Sounds become more like other sounds
Mokilese high vowels
Reading: Reread File 2.6 Acoustic Phonetics.
Exercises with Praat:
For full credit your answers should include units where appropriate.
Download Praat. http:/www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/
Record a sample of your own speech and view th
Reading: File 2.6 Acoustic Phonetics pp. 68-79.
Textbook: Exercise 43, Maltese page 146. (Follow the instructions in the book.)
Do the exercise below, Parts I and II:
Using the following
Phonemes and allophones
Further conclusions from method of
The words for these pairs of pictures differ by
minimal units, instantiated by a voiceless
bilabial stop versus a voiced alveolar stop.
Weve represented these as: /p/ and /d/
Due at the beginning of section, Jan. 30
Reading: Pages 102-123.
Part I: Transcribe the following words in IPA. This time, use square brackets rather than diagonals, for
reasons that will become clearer shortly. You will be graded on ac
Due February 6, beginning of section
Reading: File 3.5, pp. 128-134.
Use the data provided in the textbook, but follow the directions here.
For each problem, compare the indicated sounds using distribution charts. (Charts you
Part I: Transcribe these words in IPA. You can write by hand, but if you dont write neatly, you
will lose points. You can Google IPA keyboard and use what you find to type the symbols. At
this point in time, we are writin
Formants and harmonics
Formants for neutral vowel: 
Harmonics for neutral vowel: 
Why do we care about formants and
These are the basic concepts for the acoustic
study of sonorants.