EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Sunk costs should not be considered in decisions.
Sunk costs cannot be changed by any decision we make as they have been incurred
in the past and cannot possibly differ between any alternative that we might
The present value of money is always less than future value- TRUE
A standard cost is the per unit cost actually incurred under normal operating
In a standard cost system, actual costs are recorded in DM, OH, DL accounts but
In a job order system, the focus is on the job, while in a process system, the focus is
on the process.
Used for production of small,
identical, low-cost items.
Mass produced in automated
continuous production process.
Costs cannot be
Future Value- the dollar amount to which a present value will accumulate over time
The rate of interest is usually expressed as an annual rate- TRUE
3 basic types of manufacturing costs:
1. Direct materials
2. Direct labor
3. Manufacturing overhead
Laboratory Reports for BIO 118
1. Research Question What are you looking for, examining, experimenting with, and/or
observing? This should be a short paragraph.
2. Background information and possible findings What is the relationship of this expe
BIO 118L Environmental Health Issues Laboratory
Tuesday 12:45 2:45pm Thursday 8-10am
Dr. Barbara Biglan
Dr. Mary Kostalos
2 xx Buhl Hall
412 953 7278
[email protected] 111 Buhl Hall
412 365 1215
The work of scienti
WATER Water Water
whats the problem?
contains a tremendous
amount of water
about 1360 million km3
would cover the
entire U.S. to depth of
145 km (90 miles) or
equivalent to 171
million gallons of
water per person on
ICE 63 %
Traveling in our
ARSENIC LEAD MERCURY CADMIUM
Found both naturally and as a result of
Considered hazardous due to frequency of
occurrence in the environment, toxicity levels
Water is essential to life
The Hydrological Cycle
Need for water for human activities
Lack of water
Lack of clean water
Need to maintain natural ecosystems
Water, the Essential
What is It?
How can we manage It?
WHAT IS SOLID WASTE?
Solid or semi-solid material (including gases and liquids in containers)
which are non soluble in nature.
It may be hazardous or not and includes agricultural refuse,
demolition waste, industr
Metals and Metal Toxicity
What are metals
Where are metals found?
Generally dispersed in rocks, ores, soil, water a
The first landfill is developed when Knossos,
Crete digs large holes for refuse. Garbage is
dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.
China develops methods of
Composting/Recycling, and recycling bronze
for later use.
Benzene and Friends
Organic chemicals and
An organic compound is constructed of molecules that
possess carbon-based atoms, specifically -carbon atoms
attached to hydrogen atoms, together with a variety of
Whats in your
Chemical name Alkyl Hydroxy
Most commonly used preservative
in personal care products from
Shampoos to personal lubricants.
Hiding in over 13000 products !
paraben - used as a preservative in cosme
the clean and the dirty
1.The Earth is wrapped in a layer of gas
called atmosphere, tied to Earth by
gravitation, so that it cannot disperse in the
It is 300 miles thick, being made of a mix of
about 10 gases: nitrogen (78 %), oxygen (21
The end of
Air quality and health issues
National Ambient Air Quality Standard
The AQ Index indicates the level of health
concern in terms of certain criteria pollutants.
1. Disease: Zoonotic and Vector- Borne Diseases
Define Zoonotic and vector-borne disease
ZoonosisAn infection or infectious disease that can be transmitted from a
vertebrate animal to a human under natural conditions
A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO
SPECIES IN WHICH ONE SPECIES IS HELPED
(THE PARASITE) AND THE OTHER IS HARMED
MICROBE OR OTHER
AGENT OVERCOMES HOST
DEFENSES AND LIVES
Woman gathering water in a pond. Guinea
worm disease is transmitted by drinking
unfiltered water from ponds and other
stagnant surface water sources. Center: A
health worker providing education to
children about how to avoid get
World Health Organization
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus that causes human
monkeypox (MPX), a viral disease with symptoms in humans similar
to that seen in smallpox patients.
Human monkeypox is regularly reported in villages of Ce
Yersinia pestis is
passed to human
through flea bites
who have fed on an
Rats, prairie dogs,
Epidemiology Chapter 2
Epidemiology- the study of diseases in populations of humans or other animals,
specifically how, when and where they occur
Epidemiological studies can never prove causation
Epidemiological evidence can only show that this risk facto
Some multiple choice
Bullet points above chapter
Semnelweis- late 1700s
- doctors should wash there hands before they touch people
- lister came after him, acknowledged his work
Potts- late 1700s
- first to say this was an
1. Environmental Health
By the end of the course students will be able to:
Describe how environmental problems impact our lives
-Hazardous agents including microbes, toxic chemicals and medals, pesticides, and ionizing radiation
Whats in your water?
Water what would we do without it?
Water transports nutrients
gets rid of wastes
acts as an air conditioner and universal solvent
is an element in the lubricating fluid of the eye and around the joints
provides lubrication along
Who What Where When Why
Preventive, anticipatory measures should be taken when an activity
raises threats of harm to the environment, wildlife, or human health,
even if some
The Science of Poisons
What is Toxic?
The three determinants of whether a substance
will have toxic effect
The Agent (Substance)