Experiment 1: Microscopic Anatomy of the Digestive System
Visualizing the microscopic anatomy of the digestive system will aid in your
understanding of its function.
1. Label the items in the following slide pictures.
A. Lamina propria
Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image ExaminationBone
In this experiment, you will explore the components within cortical and trabecular bone.
Cortical (Compact) Bone Digital Slide Image
Trabecular (Spongy) Bone Digital Slide Image
Experiment 2: Microscopic Slide ExaminationSkin
The skin is a large organ that provides protection to the body. In this experiment, you will
examine a prepared slide of human skin with hair follicles.
Human Skin Digital Slide Image
Experiment 4: Skin Receptors
The receptors for the sense of touch are distributed across the surface of the entire
body. However, certain parts of the body are more sensitive to touch than others, as
they have a higher concentration of the receptors in th
Experiment 3: Owl Pellet Dissection
Birds of prey often consume their prey items whole, rather than selecting for the
digestible components. However, proteolytic enzymes present within the bird's stomach
are not capable of digesting all of the different s
Experiment 1: Classification of Bones
Bones are primarily classified by two factors: shape and location. In this exercise, you will
use the model skeleton and determine the classification of the specified bones.
Experiment 4: Osmosis - Tonicity and the Plant Cell
Plant cells are able to generate osmotic pressure while other cells cannot. This is due to
specialized plant structures such as the cell wall which prevent lysis caused by osmosis.
By taking advantage of
Experiment 3: Osmosis - Direction and Concentration Gradients
In this experiment, we will investigate the effect of solute concentration on osmosis. A
semi-permeable membrane (dialysis tubing) and sucrose will create an osmotic
environment similar to that
Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid
In this experiment, you will observe the effect that different molecular weights have on
the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium.
Red and Blue Dye Soluti
Experiment 5: Chemical Digestion of Food: The Role of Enzymes
Enzymes play a key role in the digestion of food. They work to chemically decompose
large molecules into smaller molecules that the body can readily use. This process begins
in the mouth, where
Experiment 2: Diffusion - Concentration Gradients and Membrane
In this experiment, you will dialyze a solution of glucose and starch to observe:
The directional movement of glucose and starch.
The effect of a selectively permeable membrane on
Experiment 4: Swallowing
Deglutition, the process of swallowing, is largely the result of skeletal muscle activity.
There are two phases involved with this action, beginning with a voluntary decision that
is initiated by the tongue. The second phase is in
Table 3: Effect of Temperature on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Time (Step #)
Heart Rate (beats/minute)
Blood Pressure (mmHg)
Initial - Normal Temperature (Step 7)
30 Seconds in Ice Water (Step 10)
60 Seconds in Ice Water (Step 10)
Table 2: Experiment 1 Image Observations
Large, close together surrounded by many cells
Large space in between
No space in between
Linear groups of cells
Chapter 5: Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism
1. The process of digestion involves _ and _ actions.
a. thermal, chemical
b. chemical, electrical
c. mechanical, chemical
d. mechanical, thermal
For nutrients to be deliver
Chapter 4: Proteins Test Bank
1. Proteins are built from simpler organic compounds called
a. indispensable amino acids.
b. amino acids.
c. fatty acids.
ANS: B All proteins are made of building block units called amino a
o Study of structure
o Study of function
Order of Hierarchial complexity
o Hierarchial relationship
o Conversion and utilization of energy is found in al
Cell Structures and Their Functions
o Tiny structures within the cells that perform very specialized functions
o Liquid material surrounding the cell
o Cyto- cell
o Aerobic powerhouse organelle of the cell
o Found more in
Chemical Basis of Life
amount of matter in a an object
gravitational force acting on an object of a given force
Four elements that make up 96% of humans mass
Oxygen atoms dont like to live alone
6 things that are circulated in the circulatory system
Carbon dioxide and oxygen
Leukocytes and antibodies
Waste products (Lactic acid)
The right side of the heart pumps to the LUNGS
The left side of t
1) Ventilation (breathing) movement of air into and out of the lungs
2) Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the lungs and blood
3) Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissue
The Endocrine System
Hormone- chemical messenger from glands, synthesized (made), stored, and released from blood
Associated with the CONTROL aspect of the MOVEMENT TRIAD.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Can be NEUROTRANSMITTERS and HORMONES
Skeletal Muscle System
Characteristics of Muscle
Two Physiological Systems that stimulates muscle
o Nervous System
o Endocrine System
Connective Tissue that surrounds the muscle
o Covering tissue such skin or the tissue that lines the intestines or lungs or blood
o Part of the integumentary system
o Structure that secretes substances such as sweat or hormones
o Glands with ducts
Skeletal Muscle Structure
Connective tissue Coverings of Muscle
Epimysium(muscular fascia)- connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle
Muscle Fasiculi- numerous visible bundles that composes a muscle.
Perimysium- loose connective tissue that sur