35.3 Particles and Potentials 633
with the constant A still undetermined. This equation represents standing waves with
nodes at the ends of the square well, but does it satisfy the Schrdinger equation? We can
find out by substituting into Equation 35.4. W
678 Chapter 37 Molecules and Solids
38.
39.
40.
BIO
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44.
45.
46.
47.
An oxygen molecule is in its vibrational and rotational ground
states. It absorbs a photon of energy 0.19653 eV and jumps to the
n 5 1, l 5 1 state. It then drops to n 5 0, l
38.4 Nuclear Fission 693
H
GOT IT? 38.3 Rank order these nuclei from the most to the least tightly bound: 42He,
He
57
2
238
132
92U, 26Fe, 1H, 54Xe.
C
O
Si
Nucleosynthesis and the Origin of the Elements
Fe
Since its energetically favorable for light nucle
36.3 The Exclusion Principle
In trying to understand why atomic electrons distributed themselves as they did, Pauli in
1924 developed his exclusion principle, which, loosely, states that two electrons cannot
be in the same quantum state. Since an electron
648
Chapter 36
Atomic Physics
Orbital Angular Momentum: An Excited State
EXAMPLE 36.2
Find the possible values for the orbital angular momentum of an electron in the n 5 3 state of hydrogen.
EVALUATE With l 5 0, Equation 36.9 gives L 5 0; for l 5 1,
INTER
714
Chapter 39
From Quarks to the Cosmos
have the particular masses they do? Why are there only three families of elementary particles? Why are leptons and quarks distinct? Are these particles really elementary, or are
there even smaller structures at hit
CHAPTER 39
SUMMARY
Big Picture
The big idea here is that the structure of ordinary matter and its interactions can be explained in terms of a handful of particles: quarks, which make
up the familiar proton and neutron and a host of other hadrons; leptons,
666
Chapter 37
Molecules and Solids
where the quantum number n takes on integer values 0, 1, 2, 3, c, and where v is the
natural frequency for classical harmonic oscillations of the molecule. The selection rule
for harmonic oscillators limits allowed tran
37.4 Superconductivity 675
APPLICATION
Maglev!
Passengers arriving at Shanghais Pudong International Airport make the 30-km
trip to a city metro station in only 7 minutes, flying on a magnetically levitated
vehiclea maglevat speeds exceeding 400 km/h. The
Index
Conditionally stable equilibrium, 192
Conduction
in electric fields, 405410, 670, 671
in ionic solution, 407, 415
in metals, 407, 415
in plasma, 408, 415
in semiconductors, 408, 415
in superconductors, 409410, 415, 485
of heat, 269272, 277
Conductio
Appendix A
Derivatives of Common Functions
da
50
dx
d
1
tan x 5
dx
cos2 x
1a is a constant2
dxn
5 nxn21
dx
1n need not be an integer2
d
sin x 5 cos x
dx
de x
5 ex
dx
d
1
ln x 5
x
dx
d
cos x 5 2sin x
dx
Derivatives of Sums, Products, and Functions of Funct
I-6
Index
Gausss law (Continued)
for electric field, 355362, 453, 510, 511, 513,
526, 530
for infinite line of charge, 360
with line symmetry, 360361, 367
with plane symmetry, 361, 367
for point charge within a shell, 359
with spherical shell, 357359
with
696
Chapter 38
Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Power
A nuclear reactor uses a controlled fission chain reaction with k 5 1 to release energy at
a steady rate. Since the average number of neutrons emitted in U-235 fission is about 2.5,
reactors require that most n
708
Chapter 39
From Quarks to the Cosmos
the muon, this particle had the same charge and spin as the electron and seemed to behave
much like a heavier version of the electron. Two muons were found: the negatively
charged m2 and its antiparticle m1. Althou
690
Chapter 38
Nuclear Physics
Cancer Treatment Radiation destroys living cells, especially fast-dividing cancer
cells. Early radiation treatment used gamma radiation; today, particle beams deliver
radiation with less effect on surrounding tissue. Alterna
37.1 Molecular Bonding
Ionic Bonding
As we saw in Chapter 36, elements near the left side of the periodic table have few electrons in their outermost shells and correspondingly low ionization energies. In contrast,
elements near the right side of the tabl
38.5 Nuclear Fusion 699
Two helium-3 nuclei then react to form helium-4 and a pair of protons 111H2, releasing
12.86 MeV:
3
2He
1 32He 42He 1 2 11H
112.86 MeV2
(38.9c)
In addition, the positron from reaction 38.9a annihilates with an electron, forming two
39.5 The Evolving Universe
717
In 1965 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at Bell Laboratories found a faint noise of microwave radiation in a satellite communications antenna they were testing. The noise
seemed to come from all directions in the sky. Theoris
35.5 Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
35.5 Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Like Newtonian physics, quantum mechanics based on the Schrdinger equation is not
consistent with special relativitys requirement that the laws of physics be the same in all
inertial
36.5 Transitions and Atomic Spectra
Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions
Before
What makes an electron jump between energy levels? In an upward transition, the electron must absorb the appropriate amount of energy. Generally, that energy is supplied by
38.1 Elements, Isotopes, and Nuclear Structure 681
Isotopes and Nuclear Symbols
Nuclei of the same element can, however, have different numbers of neutrons. Thats because neutrons dont affect the nuclear charge and therefore have negligible influence on
c
PART SIX
SUMMARY
Modern Physics
The two big ideas in modern physics are relativity and quantum mechanics. Relativity is based on a simple principle but drastically alters
our commonsense notions of space and time, matter and energy, and
the nature of grav
38.2 Radioactivity 687
EXAMPLE 38.2
Radioactive Decay: Fallout from Chernobyl
The 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Ukraine spread radioactive
fallout over Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Iodine-131 was of great
concern, since its absorbed by the thyr
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63.
Chapter 36
Atomic Physics
units of ", and (c) the magnitude of its total angular momentum
in units of ".
Suppose you put five electrons into an infinite square well of
width L
Preface to the Instructor
Introductory physics texts have grown ever larger, more massive, more encyclopedic,
more colorful, and more expensive. Essential University Physics bucks that trendwithout compromising coverage, pedagogy, or quality. The text ben