Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information. There are two types:
1. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
2. RNA ribonucleic acid
The monomer unit is a nucleotide, which is composed of three parts:
1. A 5-carbon sugar, either:
Ecology is the study of ecosystems.
An ecosystem includes all of the organisms in a geographic area plus the abiotic factors (like rainfall
amount and distribution, soil type, and temperature).
The biotic side of an ecosystem is referred to as a c
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Element a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by normal chemical means
Not all abbreviations make English sense; Ex. Lead is Pb, for Latin Plumbium.
Atom the basic unit of element; smallest unit having same physi
Separates plant or animal cell from its environment, yet most concepts regarding the outer cell
membrane hold true for all internal membranes such as the nuclear envelope or the mitochondrial
Also called a plasma membrane and a pla
All cells consist of three components:
1. A membrane
1. All organisms consist of cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of life.
3. All cells come from the division of preexisting cells.
In 1682, a British sc
Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of carbon-containing molecules.
Biochemistry is organic chemistry that deals with molecules of living systems.
Carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds (but it doesnt necessarily bond to 4 elements/molecules)
Unlike carbohydrates, they can be very diverse molecules. They are hydrophobic.
Fats are essential in a diet because there are two fatty acids that cannot be made by the body. These are
called essential fatty acids.
1. Energy storage
All proteins are linear sequences of amino acids (which are monomer units).
Amino acids always have a central carbon with a hydrogen atom, amino group, and carboxyl group
attached. The last of the four carbon bonds is to be used on an R-Group, wh
Properties of Water:
1. Surface Tension insects can walk on the surface of water; like the skin
a. Molecules chow cohesion > molecules are all alike
b. Needle or razor can float on the surface of water despite being denser than it.
2. Wetting capaci
Principle chemical energy source in most cells; carbon-hydrogen bonds carry energy.
Also participate in cell structure
Monomer unit is a monosaccharide.
Polymer unit is a polysaccharide.
Basic formula is (CH2O)2
Easiest way to
Biology: the science of life
So what is life?
For an organism to be alive, it must:
1. HAVE ORDER (multiple levels hierarchical organization)
b. Emergent Properties molecules have propert
BIOL 103 Homework #5, Problem set, Spring 2013 - WITH ANSWER KEY
1. Answer the following questions on the two data tables below. (18pts)
Consider ALL the data in the Tables. This is real data (not idealized). Hence, if there are
multiple interpretations o
Name: _ Section leader: _
Look at these 2 pedigrees for families with
breast cancer susceptibility. The affected
individuals all carry mutations in the BRCA2
Question 1: (2 pts) In Family A, the father
(individual 3.1) of the 5 children is affected.
Discussion section leader: _
BIOL 103 In-Class Quiz 1
Question 1: (4 pts) Thalidomide was prescribed as a mild sedative until it was demonstrated in 1961
that it was responsible for inducing congenital malformations in children whose mothers took
Name _ _ Discussion Leaders name _
In Class Quiz #2
KEY plus additional notes regarding point deductions in RED
Question 1: (4 pts) Name 2 of the key functions of meiosis and give a consequence of each as it
pertains to genetics.
Answer: 1. Reduce the
(10 pts) You are studying the causes of diarrhea caused by the spore forming bacterium Clostridium
difficile. Clostridium spores manage to escape digestion in the stomach and germinate in the intestine.
Therefore you are very interested in kno
Question #1 on both Quiz 2 and Quiz 3 were experimental questions, where all students will receive the
full 10 points for both quizzes. This is not reflected on classesV2 it will be added at the end of the
module outside of Gradebook.
QUIZ #2 Questions 2
Biology 101 Final exam 2012
Full Name: _
Section number/Postdoctoral Scholar: _
Please write your name and section on EVERY PAGE of this exam. This exam has 59
points total and is worth 25% of your course grade. We expect you should not need to
rush to co
Name of your postdoctoral scholar:_
Biol 101 Quiz #1
The following is the primary structure of a very small protein:
1. (10 pts) Use the table of amino acid side chains given to you to answer the following
Quiz 5 Answer key
A diagram of the HIV life cycle.
Virion is circled (also below)
Capsid (or in virion below)
Reverse transcriptase activity
a. What typ
Postdoctoral Scholar: _
Biol 101 Quiz #4
1. (6 pts) Fill in the blanks
The _ribosome_reads out the information in a _mRNA_molecule
to produce the encoded protein by initiating translation at a
_start_ codon, moving charged _tRNAs_ successively
Bio101 Quiz 3
The following is a simplified drawing of electron transport and ATP synthesis process.
1. (10 pt) Based on what you learned on lecture 6 to answer the following questions.
a) (1 pt) This whole process is called_oxidative phosphorylation_.
Postdoctoral Scholar: _
Biol 101 Quiz #2
1. (10 pts.) Answer the following questions by filling in the blanks or selecting the best choice.
a. (1 pt.) Phospholipids are amphipathic mol
Empty vector 4 contains all of the features that would allow it to carry out the three goals.
The cloning site would enable the protein coding portion of the harE gene to be inserted into the
empty vector via restriction
The aim of the paper and the investigation was not only to measure the effectiveness of
BI-RG-587 as an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, but also to determine whether it could
potentially be used as a drug for HIV-1
Name: Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2
Organism: Homo sapiens
Number of amino acids (For Chain A): 153
Number of beta bridges/sheets (For Chain A): 8
Number of alpha or 3/10 helices (F
BIOL 101 - Homework 2
At low concentrations of the polyprotein substrate, the concentration of
competitive inhibitor present would be greater than that of the substrate, causing
the HIV protease enzyme to bind to the competitive inh
1. If Meselson and Stahl had only followed the density of DNA for one generation after
the switch from 15N to 14N, they would only have seen the UV absorption photographs showing a
single band of DNA slightly left of and thu
BIOL 101 Quiz 1 Review
1. Ionic bonds = result from attraction between opposite charges; non-directional
2. Hydrogen bonds = result when a partially positive charged H bond donor shares a
proton with a partially negatively charged H bond accepto
BIOL 101 Quiz 4 Review
1. Molecular biology = subfield of biochemistry devoted to studying the molecular basis of
2. Genes = units of genetic information that generate specific features of an organism;
each protein is encoded by a gene