As the war neared the end, two major conferences took place to discuss how to most effectively
terminate the war.
The Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference began on February 11, 1945. In attendance were U.S. President Franklin
D. Roosevelt, British Prime
Xavier was a Portuguese Christian Missionary who traveled from Portugal, around Africa, to
India, the South Pacific, and even Japan and China. He was a founding member of the Society of
Jesus or the Jesuit Order.
Prince Henry financially supp
the return to a humanistic appreciation of physical beauty from the austere medieval conception
of emaciated, self-flagellated saints.
Note that the real "David" lives at the Accademia in Florence The statue in the Piazza della
Signoria is a copy.
areas, including art, science, music, mechanics and the arts of war, politics, philosophy, and
nearly every other subject that "mattered." A "Renaissance Man" can be loosely defined as a
scholar during the Renaissance who (because knowledge was limited) c
Sir Thomas More was an English lawyer, writer, and politician. He was a devout Catholic who
wrote Utopia, a novel that depicted Christian Humanist ideals producing an ideal fictional
society. In his utopia, there was no crime, poverty,
Renaissance saw far fewer universities, while the Northern Renaissance saw more universities
and education. Also, Northern Renaissance humanists pushed for social reform based on
The New Monarchies
With the Renaissance came the rise of n
Pico della Mirandola, 1463-1494, one of the most famous humanists of the Renaissance. By an
unknown artist, in the Uffizi, Florence.
At the time, Italy was the center of culture in Europe. Middle class writers were supported by
noble patronage, and as a r
Social Order and Cultural Change
The plague resulted in more favorable working positions for women, although the overall
participation of women in public life varied with class as well as region. Married couples worked
together frequently, a
Finally the Council of Constance (1414-1418) stepped in and called for the abdication of the
three popes in power. With the support of the Holy Roman Emperor, the three popes were
deposed and Martin V was elected as a single pope, ending the Great Schism.
important to religion, not the interpretation by priests. He was one of the first to set out to
translate the Bible into a vernacular language rather than using the Latin Vulgate. He also
rejected the extreme wealth of the church and clergy.
Jan Hus (1369
These parliaments didn't have the ability to dictate to the king, but could state grievances and the
king could act upon them. This was a basic sort of legislation.
In addition, the formation of these parliaments led to the establishment of the three esta
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)
Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories, exposed the materialistic, worldly
interests of a variety of English people. This collection of stories was set in a frame based around
a trip to Cante
VI, declared that all lands west of the longitude of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to
Spain while new lands discovered east of that line would belong to Portugal. These events led to
increasing tension between the two powers given the fact that the
His son, Henry VIII, took this process still further when, as a result of his desire to have a male
heir, he founded the Anglican Church in England and broke away from the Catholic Church.
After Henry married Catherine of Aragon, she failed to produce a m
though was at Ravenna. Poor leadership and stress from invasion led to the fall of Rome in 410
to the Visigoths. The Western Empire itself fell in 476 at Ravenna. The remaining Eastern
Empire was now referred to as the Byzantine Empire, after its capital.
The Eucharist (Holy Communion) - Taking bread and wine in remembrance of the Last
Matrimony - Marriage.
Holy Orders - Becoming a priest.
Penance - Making contrition for your sins.
Confirmation - a kind of coming-of-age rite in which young people a
Lutheranism stresses education for all, including females. According to Lutheran doctrine,
marriage is important, and gender roles should be enforced: women belong in the home and
should control the economy, while men should control the househ
Spread of Protestantism During the 1500s
During this period of European history, the most important thing to individuals of society was
religion. As people began to see corruption and problems in the Catholic Church, they began to
have doubt in the belief
Key Persons of the Reformation
From 1521 to 1555, Protestantism spread across southern Europe. The Reformation started as a
religious movement, but became political, and as a result had economic and social impacts.
Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elde
Early in Willem's life,1601 and 1602, he set out on two trips to the Dutch possessions in the East
Indies. On November 18, 1605, he sailed from Bantam to the coast of western New Guinea. He
then crossed the eastern end of the Arafura Sea,
En route back to Batavia, Tasman came across the Tongan archipelago on January 21, 1643.
While passing the Fiji Islands Tasman's ships came close to being wrecked on the dangerous
reefs of the north-eastern part of the Fiji group. He charted the eastern t
of finding the Northeast passage above Siberia. During this journey he discoverd what is today
Bjrnya, also known as Bear Island.
Later in the journey, Barentsz reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya, and followed it
northward before being forced to turn
Mediterranean, and were unstable and inefficient in the open ocean. To cope with oceanic
voyages, European sailors adapted a ship known as the cog, largely used in the Baltic and North
Sea, which they improved by adding sail designs used in the Islamic wo
Las Casas was a Spanish priest who advocated civil rights for Native Americans and strongly
protested the way they were enslaved and badly treated. He wrote A Short Account of the
Destruction of the Indies and De thesauris in Peru.
Juan Ponce de Len
Chapter 03 - Exploration and Discovery
The Portuguese Empire.
The Spanish Empire.
During the fifteenth and the sixteenth century the states of Europe began their modern
exploration of the world with a series of sea voyages. The Atlantic state
lost a portion of their wealth, and became more dependent upon monarchs and war for income
Additionally, the plague resulted in the improvement of living standards for the peasantry and
the urban working population. Peasants and artisans now ha
continent. This experience in childhood may also have compromised their resistance to the
plague bacillus in later life.
The plague is thought to have been brought to Europe during a Mongol attack on Kaffa (in the
Black Sea); when sickness forced the Mong
southern France, by far the wealthiest portion of France, which eventually led to the English
losing the war.
The Rise of Towns and Commerce
From the 6th to 10th centuries, there were few commerce centers and only small merchant
classes in Europe. What lo
Intellectual Journal week 1
In todays lecture we discusses what globalization is, how it is achieved, and what
are its effects. Globalization was defined as a process of increasing global connectedness.
This process is driven by four key factors: t
Intellectual Journal week 5
This mornings lecture was titled The Politics of Gender. Professor Rawski
discussed the Second Wave of the Womens Rights movement that occurred in the late
1960s/ early 1970s. To begin, she first reviewed what constitute