ESC 244 Study Guide
Multiple Choice and True/False (25 questions; 100 points)
conventional back squat technique
leverage and muscle tension
Type 1, 2, 3 levers
high jump peak height factors
Kinematics is a part of mechanics.
Kinematics: description of movements, without getting into what causes those
translation: the object maintains the same orientation.
rectilinear translation: all points of the object move in
High jumper needs to receive:
a large vertical force
over a relatively long time
Making the ground reaction force be large:
High jumpers plant the foot of the takeoff leg markedly
ahead of the body.
This increases the force that the athlet
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Linear kinetics studies translation and its causes.
All bodies have:
if stopped, reluctance to be moved
= property called inertia
if moving, reluctance to get stopped
Mass is a direct measurement of inertia
Mass is a scala
ANGULAR KINETICS (continuation)
Moment of inertia
In angular kinetics (i.e., for rotation), inertia is represented by the moment of inertia of
(Think of moment-of-inertia as a long word meaning difficult to get rotating, and once
it has starte
Exerting force on an object over a period of time is an important part of many sporting
activities (throwing a javelin, lifting a barbell, etc).
(This is another form of Newtons 2nd Law)
linear impulse = change in linear mo
Conventional versus Elevated Split Squats
All conventional squats normally involve a certain amount of forward lean of the trunk.
The sketch below shows a free-body diagram of a conventional squat. The ground
reaction force actually represents the sum o
CENTER OF MASS
Center of mass (or center of gravity) = average location of the total mass of the body.
The weight force is applied at the center of mass, so center of mass = center of gravity.
Location of the c.m.
Angular kinematics studies rotation, without getting into its causes.
So it deals with angles and with changes in angles.
Linear kinematics basic unit:
Angular kinematics basic units:
Definition of a
Stride = 1 complete cycle. For instance: left foot takeoff to next left foot takeoff.
Step = half a cycle. For instance: left foot takeoff to right foot takeoff.
Goal: How to maintain the fastest possible running speed.
Each step co
the distance from the point of effort
application to the fulcrum
the distance from the point of
resistance application to the fulcrum
the ratio of the effort arm to the
Angular kinetics studies rotation and its causes.
r = how far off-center the force is.
r = moment arm of the force. Units = meter (m)
the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis of rotation