Bone formation review
Increased blood supply triggers both types of bone formation. The first system to
become functional is the circulatory system because the nutrients need to be delivered.
The increased blood supply brings nutrients to the cells (make
This is due to a lack of insulin or its effects. We stop making insulin and it results in so
many things going wrong. This leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) because we
are not taking the sugar out of our blood. The action of
The ovary is sitting on top of the uterus
which is sitting on top of the vagina.
But, when we look at the other view we
see that the ovaries are actually off to
the side, one on each side.
Right before ovulation the Graafian
Having multiple receptors has an effect on using drugs.
Cocaine increases epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Major drug that acts as a receptor agonist and best known model of drug addiction, the
opiate drugs. They are receptor agonists for endor
Begin with the hormone (first messenger) binding to the receptor. The key is that the
receptor is in the cell membrane. After the hormone binds to the receptor it activates a
g-protein. The g-protein activates adenyl cyclase which is an enzyme pres
What if we have an enzyme and it is not in its active form and we want to make it active, how do
we do that? We use a modulator specifically a positive one. The positive modulator activites the
enzyme by binding to the allosteric site and chang
Synarthroses sutures of the skull
Amphiarthroses pubic symphysis
Synovial freely movable
Basic structure of the synovial joint
The place where two bones come together: joint,
articluation, or a arthrosis. The two bones do
not touch because of the a
Homeostasis: maintaining stability. Mostly a negative feedback system
There is a stimulus that causes a change to what is normal and there is a receptor that detects that
change, then it goes to the control system which is usually the nervous
Organization of muscles from large to small in order, it gets smaller and smaller and
more and more specific units are you get deeper in. The fascicles are made up of
individual muscle fiber, and the inside of the fiber is made up of myofibri
DNA and Proteins
We need both DNA and proteins to make us who we are. DNA is the answer of why we have the
traits we have, we got them from our parents. The genetic code is the sequence of the nitrogen
bases codes for the order of amino acids and the amin
What do we need to look at to determine membrane permeability? Which direction will a
substance move across the membrane? What if it is permeable? What do we have to consider?
Concentration gradient! From more to less. Also need to l
The muscle is made up of fascicles and each fascicle is made up of fiber and an
individual muscle fiber is made up of a muscle cell
There are regular dense fibrous connective tissues that surround every layer. The outer
layer is the epimys
How does a message move throughout the body?
The neuron at rest is -70mV. It is that way because it is more permeable to potassium
then sodium because it is closer to -90 than +60. If we want the neuron to fire we have
to open sodium pores
The type of contraction we get when we apply one stimulus. How will the twitch change
when we apply a different strength of stimulus? We can adjust the strength of the
stimulus. If we turn up the voltage the strength of the contraction will get str
Posterior pituitary doesnt make its own hormones. It releases hormones that are said
to be made in the hypothalamus. They are said to be made there because that is where
their cell bodies are located. These hormones are ADH and oxytocin. ADH regul
If the stimulus is too weak to get the neuron to fire then it is a subliminal. We determine
this point by the threshold, where the sodium gates open, because it can change its
shape through a conformational change. The point at which the gate opens establ
Phases of bone
Mineral phase: combo of calcium and phosphate which is called hydroxyapatite. This
provides compressional strength to the bones which allows them to withstand being
compressed and weight bearing capability
Organic phase: provides collagen w
Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is 2/3 of the brain tissue. It is divided into
two hemispheres by the very deep longitudinal fissure. Even though they look very
similar there are differences. The main difference is the language
Finished our look at the cerebrum then looked at the brain stem and the diencephalon.
We then were looking at the hypothalamus which is important because is senses what
is happening and makes changes and is very key to homeostasis.
Basic structures of the nervous system
The neuron is so long and one cell can reach very far!
Perikaryon cell body
Dendrite toward the cell
In a motor neuron we have lots of short dendrites and I long branching axon
leading to individual muscle fibers in
Divided in two by the longitudinal fissure that is similar bot identical. The side view
shows us deeper grooves that we use in the landmarks, central fissure that separates
the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe and the lateral fissure that sepa
Calcium is the trigger to the contraction because it moves the blocking position of the Tcomplex, allowing myosin and actin to bind together.
The myosin starts in the erect position and then it bends into the inside. It binds to the
Factors that influence the strength of contraction
We already talked about intensity and frequency. We change the intensity by changing
how many motor neurons fire.
If we apply a single stimulus that is the weakest that it can be is a threshold twitch. Th