Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Dreaming
Biological rhythms are periodic changes that take place in living organisms. They range from second to minutes to months to years. Most important and well studied of these rhythms are
Human skin is the largest sensory organ (10-20 sq. ft.) and can be stimulated by a number of physical stimuli. 1. Mechanical 2. Thermal 3. Chemical
Touch Pressure Vibration Tickle Pins and needles Wetness Smoothness
Neurotransmitters and Drugs in the Brain Chapter 4
Drugs and Brain
Most drugs affect the brain and behavior by changing synaptic transmission. In this chapter we will discuss drugs that affect neurotransmitters in the brain.
Psychopathology: Biological Basis of Behavioral Disorders
A field of inquiry that studies the causes, symptoms and prognosis of psychological disorders.
A relatively complex field that includes a multidiscipline approach to un
The sense of equilibrium and balance
Fish in water and mammals birds in air on ground all keep their equilibrium.
Three Semicircular Canals
Sensory organ that senses gravity an
Conduction, transmission & integration of neural signals Chapter 3
We need to know two kind of forces to understand electrophysiology in nerve cells. 1. Concentration gradient: Forces that move chemicals from more concentrated loc
Hormones and their effect on body and brain Chapter 5
Hormones (Greek, to excite) chemical messengers in the bloodstream released by endocrine glands.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) observed changes and
Structural and morphological details of the brain Chapter 2
From the time of Galen, and perhaps even before, brain was considered a gland. Thinkers believed that nerves secreted fluids from the brain and spinal cord to the periphery
Homeostasis: Active Regulation of Internal States
Over the course of evolution numerous factors have contributed to maintaining an optimal internal state in the context of ever changing external factors. Internal State
History of Biological Psychology
What is Biological Psychology?
A field that relates behavior to bodily processes, especially to the functions and actions of the brain.
Rat pressing bar
Emotions, Aggression and Stress
Emotion is a complicated psychological concept that includes wide range of observable behaviors, expressed feelings and changes in bodily state.
Due to the nature of its complexity they have been hard t
The Sense of Hearing
Sound waves are composed of compression and rarefaction of air molecules.
Acoustical transduction: Conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hairs cells of the inner ear.