Where is language in the brain and what can this tell us?
How does brain organization emerge?
Limits of functional specialization
Knowing where something is doesnt tell us whats going on
just about any simple function is going to
I. Peripheral & Central N.S.
II. Brain Damage
III. Parkinsons disease
Jargon: projection - local - schwann cells - oligodendrocytes - astrocytes - striatum - substrate substantia nigra - dopamine
Behavior - sensing, coordin
Alcohol - when taken habitually, it destroys the pump, cripples memory formation - korsakoffs
During pregnancy - fetus can be born with impaired hippocampus - FAS
Nervous system: peripheral and central
peripheral: projection neurons
central: projection and local neurons
cells dont regenerate; CNS isnt resilient
neurodegenerative; a gradual deterioratio
Education - Prevention
Immune therapy; Vaccine
Context: person takes a drug, its transported to the brain via the blood system
in theory it should never reach the brain because of the immune system
but our bodies dont make cocaine or other antibo
a. magic bullet
Jargon: medial forebrain bundle - nucleus accumbens - ventral tegmental area
Psychoactive drugs - change us psychologically
core question: from a physiological lens, how do they work?
b. craving - hippocampus
P-initial dose creates pleasurable experience
T-following doses dont create as pleasurable of an experience: tolerance
I. Mohoaminies: NE - dopamine - seratonin
II. brain: locus coeraleus - raphe nuclei - substantia niagra - ventral tegmental
III. synaptic defense: up + down regulation
transmitters: how and where
regulated by Ca
I. Evolution of behavior
a. single vs. multicell
b. biobehavioral system
II. Nervous system
a. biological view
b. pysiological view
Jargon: Euglena - Projection - local - trom soluction
The relationship between brain and behavior: how do the phy
I. Brain - behavior relations
a. interaction (when where what)
II. Biobehavioral system
Where we ended last time with the relationship between the brain and behavior
-stimulus you interpret th
I. Peripheral Nervous System
a. autonomic + skeletal
b. parasympathetic + sympathetic
a. Interface: cortex + hypothalamus
b. organization: localization of function
Remaining difference between Peripheral and Central nervous system: action.
a. How + Where
Jargon: nicotine - muscarinic - cholinesterase - inhibitory postsynaptic potential - p.128
amplification - motivation amplifying the stimulus
weak to str
Language, culture, and thoughts
peoples thoughts, perceptions, and memories are determined by the categories and structures
made available by language
language is the mould into which the mind is poured - Rog
Spoken word recognition
45,000 words with lots of overlap in sounds (bag of marbles)
Four Stages of Production (Levelt, 1989)
-Conceptualizing a thought to be represented
-Formlating a linguistic plan
-Monitoring (overtly or covertly)
->what happens at each stage?
Two main questions
1. Nature vs. Nurture
2. Are there specialized language learning mechanisms or are general problem-solving
Ways kids dont learn language
How do kids do it?
Cross-Linguistic Similarities and Variations:
If a language differs from other languages in a particular respect, then that aspect must
be learned. ex: SOV vs. SVO vs. free word order
If a property exists in all languages, that property might be p
Reading Between the Lines: Figurative Language
Saying more with less
Indirect requests: slide 12
Metaphors: implicit comparison
Subject/target/topic/tenor: The thing that metaphor is about
Source/Vehicle: What is the target being compared to.
Factors affecting ambiguity resolution:
The bully was told the boy will learn judo yesterday
-Adverb attachment (The bartender told the detective that the suspect will
leave the country yesterday)
Where do indirect speech acts come from?
-Gricean maxims dictate directness and efficiency.
pass me the salt infringes upon another agents autonomy
Basic Ideas of Politeness Theory
Politeness: Acting so as
What is writing for?
Erotic vampire Novels
Where did it come from?
ancient samaria- cuneiform
How do squiggles come to have meaning?
Logographic: Symbol = whole word (morpheme)
chinese, japanese kanji, south k
Chapter 5 - Advanced Networks
Chapter 4 - this week
I. Localization of function
a. brain damage
apraxia - aphasia - corpus callosum - alexia
Peripheral NS does 2 things
-initiates motor behavior via skeletal nervous system