1. Which of the following can not happen to visible light as it passes through cells?
It induces fluorescence
It is absorbed
Its refractive index changes
Its speed changes
It is diffracted.
2. The phase-contrast microscope:
a. Converts diff
Lecture 14 Membranes 2
Pockels experiment with oil in water pushing the floating molecules on the surface of water
o Oil no effect
o Glycerol diffuses
o Detergent fills in spaces at surface of water, pushes pepper to side
b/c amphipathic= has both and n
How do Substances get into Cells?
o Overton showed us substances dissolve in membrane
Materials having hydrophobic characteristics
Dissolve in Membrane
Ex) oils, alcohols, ether, organic solvents, steroids, vitamins
Small, hydrophobic (nonpolar) mate
Components of ECM
o Integrins (transmembrane protein) . dimer (two parts) . alpha chain, beta chain
Binds to fibronectin and calcium
Large extracellular domain
Transmembrane section connects to proteins inside cell (talin) that bind to actin
o RBC in hypotonic sol. So that they burst.
o The deformed cell will invaginate and area will form inside-out cell.
o Refer to picture above
The two cells of differing membrane proteins could then be separated using centrifuge and a sucrose
1) Sugar Transporters
i) Highly specific dynamic process. Only allow certain kinds of sugars to go through
ii) Dependent on a concentration gradient
iii) Saturable-number of channels available is limited.
iv) Open and close specifically when glucose binds
Seven transmembrane proteins
Proteins in complex structure that are woven in and out of membrane
Cylinders comprised of both hydrophobic (edges and middle) and
hydrophilic (middle). One side is comprised of hydrophilic amino acids
and the other side is
Metabolic Coupling (cells help each other get materials that the other needs that they
One type of cell needs nutrient (A)
Another cell needs nutrient (B)
Put cells in a nutrient deprived environment
Adherent junction: Zonula adherens (intermediate junction, belt desmosome)
Zones of adherence
ring around tissue = Belt
o Cadherins .
Desmosome: Macula adherens
Macula = plaque
o Just at one spot
o A lot of proteins sticking out of the plaqu
Polina Pomerants 3096 Lab Naoto Tanaka Room 235 Cell Culture and Fluorescence Objective: The purpose of the cell culture experiment was to first dissociate cells from the body tissues of a chick embryo and to grow these cells in vitro in primary culture.
Fibronectin bi molecular molecule (two chains held together by disulfide bonds) has
several binding regions .
Nectin means binding
Made to pick up and interact with other proteins in the matrix
Binding domain for collagen
Binding domain for integrin n