Chemistry and the world around you
Why can I smell pizza across a room?
Why do the 3 states of matter exist?
What causes snowflakes to have hexagonal symmetry?
Why can some insects walk on water and geckos on walls and ceilings?
Why is DNA a do
Section 5.8: The Kinetic Molecular Theory : A model for gas behavior
Postulate 1: Particle motion: Gas particles are in constant random, straight line motion,
except when they collide with e
Section 5.10: Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior
Gases behave ideally under 2 conditions:
1. the volume of gas particles is small compared to the space between them (ie,
compared to the volume of the container.
2. there are no attractive or repuls
11.3 Intermolecular Forces Vs Intramolecular forces (chemical bonds)
Chemical Bonds Between
atoms within a molecule
Covalent Atoms sharing
Result from Coulombic
11.4: Intermolecular Forces in Action- Properties of the Liquid State
1. Surface Tension It is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid
by a unit amount.
Question 1: Which of the following substances has the highest surface tension in
11.5 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure
The enthalpy of vaporization, Hovap is defined as the quantity of heat that must be absorbed
when one mole of liquid vaporizes.
H2O (l) H2O (g)
Hovap = 40.7 kJ/mol
Hovap is positive because ener
11.8: Phase Diagrams: The effect of temperature and pressure on the physical state.
Important components of a phase diagram
1. Regions representing each phase
2. Lines between the regions representing the equilibria between two phases
3. The Triple Point
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
In a mixture of unreacting gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of
the individual gases:
Ptotal = PA + PB + PC
PA = A Ptotal where, A = mole fraction of gas A.
A = nA
where, nA = number of
Gas behavior at STP:
STP (Standard temperature and pressure) - 0oC (273.15 K) and 1 atm (760 torr)
Problem 1: Calculate the volume of 28.0 g of N2 and 32.0 g of O2 at STP.
Applications of the Ideal Gas Law
Determination of density and molar mass of a gas