Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
Intermolecular forces explain boiling points, melting points, vapor pressure
Characteristic Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
State of Matter
General Chemistry II 1152
February 14, 2003
( )= ( )
ln ( ) = ( )
R = 0.08206 mol K = 8.314 mol K
[ A] [ A]0 = kt
1. Which should have the largest dipole moment?
Chemistry 1152 Final Exam Study Guide
Exam will have 200 points.
You will have from 1:30 pm 4:00 pm on Saturday, May 3rd to complete the exam.
The exam will be a mix of multiple-choice and show your work problems,
following the format of the quizzes and m
CHM 1152 Chapter 16 Problem Session
Name _/\/%L_* Section
1. What is a buffer? What makes it a good buffer? How would you go about choosing the chemicals
needed to prepare a buffer at some specic pH? What would cause a buffer to be destroyed?
Villanova University, Department of Chemistry
CHM 1152 - General Chemistry II
1. One decomposition of the rocket fuel hydrazine (N2H4) produces ammonia gas and dinitrogen
(a) Write a balanced reaction for the production
Recitation Quiz April 10, 2003
Buffers and Solubility Equilibria
1. Circle the following pairs that will form buffers. For the pairs that are buffers, write the
a. HCl/NaCl no
b. NH3/NH4C1 (ammonia/ammonium chloride)
Energy - capacity to do work
Work - Force x distance
E of the system
E = E2 E1
w = PV
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Total amount of energy in Universe is constant
Esystem + Esur. = 0
Enthalpy Change =
Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the
interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy.
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
Loss of an electron - oxidation
Gain of an el
Shapes of Organic Molecules
Carbon will almost always form four bonds.
If it has four single bonds it will be tetrahedral - sp hybridized.
If it has one double bond it will be trigonal planar - sp2 hybridized.
Chapter 16 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
The Common Ion Effect and Buffers
A buffer is a combination of a weak acid or base with its salt.
0.1 M HOAc and 0.1 M NaOAc
H + + OAc
Addition of the common ion of a weak acid, in this case its con
Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory
Acid - dissociates in water to produce H+ ions.
Base - dissociate in water to produce OH ions.
Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory
Acid - proton (H ) donor
Cl(aq) + H3O+ (aq)
HCl + H2 O
Chapter 12 Solutions and Their Properties
The Solution Process
Solvated ions (or solute molecules) are surrounded and stabilized by a shell of
Heats of Solution
energy of solvation interactions
Rate equals change in something with time
reaction rate =
A = reactant or product
For the reaction A B , measure the rate two ways:
disappearance of reactant A rate =
appearance of product B
Chapter 14 Chemical Equilibrium
H2(g) + I 2(g)
H2(g) + I 2(g)
H2(g) + I 2(g)
Chemical equilibrium is reached when reactants combine to form
products at the same rate as the products rea
Chemistry in the Atmosphere
The temperature of the atmosphere varies with altitude.
The atmosphere is divided to four regions based on its temperature profile:
The troposphere (below an altitude of 12 km)
This is the region where we s