Depending on context, opposing heuristics can be used
Escaping from heuristics can lead to success in sports
Hot hands = opposite effect of gamblers fallacy
Thing happening a bunch of times makes it more likel
People are using the wrong question, therefore getting wrong answer
Study asks: What is the probability of A occurring?
Participants should ask themselves:
How frequently does A occur?
What we actually ask ourselves:
How likely does
Affect and representativeness heuristic
Emotions seen as separate from cognition; doesnt factor into rules and
Affect heuristic: how we value things matters in decision making, often
solve the problem of what makes me feel good or what will mak
Target = domain were trying to understand
Source = domain of the metaphor
Shrek is an onion.
Shrek = target
Onion = source
Why metaphor matters
We see time as space.
The meeting originally scheduled for next Wednesday has
Theory of Mind
We believe that other humans/agents have beliefs/desires/needs/emotions that drive them
to act certain ways.
If an agent desires X and knows that X exists, he/she will do things to get X.
Assume the other a
Theory of Mind development
Both something were born with and something we learn
Varies between those who are on the autism spectrum and those who are not
Time line of Theory of Mind:
Newborns imitate only human faces; dont imitate shapes that look kind
Knowledge regarding ones own cognition, goals, desires, tasks
Knowing what you know and what you dont know
Knowing what youre good at cognitively
Conscious experience of ones own cogn
Review of decision-making
o Logical rules prevent money pump or constantly losing
o Rules include transitivity, substitutability, monotonicity, etc
Utility of A is greater than Utility of B if A>B
Violations of Normative Decision-making Theory
Ai = Subjective probability of outcome x occurring
Vi =Subjective value of outcome x
Ai and Vi are both related non-linearly to their linear correlates
o They a