Ecology II Competition
Niche: full range of conditions, biotic and abiotic, under which organisms can live. the envelope of conditions.
Interactions with other organisms
Nutrients and water
Pasteur: point where yeast gobbles up sugar at higher rate. Why? At first it has oxygen, eventually
all oxygen used up and less efficient process and gobbles up sugar. Only place can make ATP is
glycolysis after no oxygen. Need another pathway (pyruvate -
Ecology: branch of science concerned with interrelationship of organisms and environments
Species: collection of individuals interbreeding under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring, reproductive
isolated form other such groups.
Lion natural selection shape behavior so increased fitness in population
Forces female who pick guys with small manes (lower sperm, testosterone), least likely to produce cubs that survive.
While female picked large manes, more likely to survive.
Beetle body color controlled by two independently assorted genes. Whenever dominant allele is present for either or
both genes, red color produced.
1. Traits inherited as genes, invisible, indivisible, characters passed from one gener
Why arent recombination frequencies are not additive?
Incomplete dominance (and codominance): red and white -> pink.
Codominance: human blood type.
Both incomplete dominance and codomiancne: phenotype heterozygous different from homozygous.
Food molecules of all types (no just glucose) are broken down through glycolysis and Krebs Cycle.
(proteins, fats, nucleic acids, etc). Lipids and fats -> fatty acids -> beta oxidation -> 2 carbons at a
time to Acetyl CoA, dont g
Chemistry of life is chemistry of carbon
Carbons unlimited ability to bond to itself
makes it possible to form macromolecules of
great lengths and complexity. Very versatile.
Functional groups enable us to predict
behavior of molecules.
o Amino hydrogen
Feedback inhibition: non competitive inhibition. When end product of pathway if inhibitor,
produces an effect called feedback inhibition.
Feedbakc inhibition: result of end product binding to allosteric site. End product acts as a non
Can push in one direction or another. Selection can direct in number of directions.
Directional Selection; ex: push fur color lighter or darker
Stabilizing selection; ex: extremes selected against and stabilize around
Scrub jays monogamous. Could this factor in behavior in which yearlings return to help feed next generation? Yes,
because parents mated for life; full siblings, more likely to care in the sense that evolution favors behavior.
Whole series of scientists preceding Darwin that set ground-stage of evolution.
Fossils show evolution
History of life record of succession and extinction
For first 4 billion years, life on earth dominated by microorganisms (90%)
What are genes made of? DNA
Discovery of DNA
Friedrich Miesclher: found phosphorous=rich substance with white blood cells in pus and
salmon sperm. Lots of nuclei in these.
Frederick Griffith showed that virulence (ability to cause disease) in streptrans
Vitalism: sense that living matter distinctly different from non living. Expressed as idea that living
things contain vital spirit, elan vital, separating living from non-living.
Broke down with urine; urea is component in urine. Compound known to exist