Hinduism was defined by all of the following EXCEPT
e. an attack on all other religions.
 Buddhism diffe
 Greek society, compared to Rome's, registered special advances in
e. religious thought.
 Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT
 The Senate of republican Rome particularly represented
e. the landed aristocracy.
 The most characteristic political form in the classical
 The decline of the three classical civilizations between 200 and
e. outside inva
 Despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism
d. absolute hostility to the worship of religious images and spirits o
 The Prophet of Islam was _, whose revelations were
recorded in the Quran.
 The _ or community of the faithful in Islam
transcended old tribal boundaries.
 The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims, the _,
were confession of th
 The forces of Ali and the Umayyad confronted each other at the
Battle of _.
 The first Umayyad Caliph after the defeat of Ali was _.
 Ali's son Husayn was defeated and killed at _.
 The _ supported the Umayyads in the
 The religion that arose from the revelations of Muhammad was
 The recitations of revelations received by Muhammad were
recorded in the _, the Islamic holy book.
 Islam spread first among the _, nomadic pastoralists of
b. between the supporters of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
c. between the supporters of Husayn, Ali's son, and the Umayyad
e. to suppress riva
 Most of what we know about the preclassical period in Indian
History comes from literary epics developed by the Aryans, initially
passed on orally and only later written down in _ .
 Chandragupta's grandson, _ , constitutes one of the
b. the scientific control and domination of nature
e. conflict, war, and destruction
 Classical Chinese civilization was ruled by
 China's classical period gave rise to all of the following
 Besides the "mean people," which of the following groups were
territory takenbyMuslims. In1492the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spainand Portugal
the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, warriors from this group
Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today
 Most of the 2 million-plus years during which our species has
existed are described by the term _ .
Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)
 The ending of the _ was a major factor in the formation
of the first farming communities, or the emergence of the N
 Pharaohs used slave labor to build the _ .
 T/F: In the Paleolithic Age, hunter-gatherers could support large
populations and elaborate societies.
 T/F: One sign of the revolutionary quality of agriculture as a
system of production wa
 Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools for all of the
 The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of the
Abbasid rule were the _.
 T/F: Key Arabian towns like Mecca and Medina were largely
extensions of the tribal culture of the camel nomads.
 T/F: Muhammad was a member of the
 Unlike the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire
e. admitted the mawali as full members of the Islamic community.
 Who ruled Medina prior to Muhammad's flight there?
e. the Umayyads
 Prior to Muhammad's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was
 T/F: Greek architecture is considered as having invented the
foundations of "classical architecture."
 T/F: The rise of commercial agriculture in Greece and then around
Rome was one of the prime forces leading to efforts to establish an
 T/F: Classical Indian civilization emerged without any type of
 T/F: The Epic Age also saw the creation of the Upanishads, epic
poems with a mystical religious flavor.
 T/F: In 322 B.C.E., a young soldier, Ashoka, seiz
 The eastern part of the Roman Empire centered on Constantinople
became known as (the) _ .
Byzantine Empire (Byzantium)
 The last effort to restore Mediterranean unity came under the
eastern emperor _ .
 Some centuries after Buddha's de
 T/F: India's fragmented political system allowed its culture to
continue to evolve even after the decline of the Gupta Empire.
 T/F: Indian military and political forces rebuffed Islam.
 T/F: Rome's decline was attributed to a combination of
 A Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between
the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, the _ featured royal
courts built of stone that gave the kingdom its name.
 T/F: Prior to the arrival of the Muslims, Africa was totally