THEORIES AND HOW THEY ARE TESTED Theories are on the "rational" side of science. How is data, the "empirical" part of science, used to test theories? Working with Ideas: The Rational Side A theory is someone's understanding of how things work. For ex
Ecology topic #4, p. 1 of 8
Levels of Selection
In d ivid u a l
B o th k in a n d g ro u p se le c tio n p ro d u c e
'a l t r u i s t i c ' t r a i t s t h a t m a y i n c r e a s e
G ro up
in d iv id u a l f itn e ss o f th e b e a re r
Ecology topic #24, 1 of 6
Human influences on atmospheric composition
1. Ozone layer
A. Occurs in both the stratosphere and at ground-level
I. Ground-level ozone (O3) is primarily produced by human activity and acts as a
Ecology topic #17, p. 1 of 7
Autotroph: an organism that can make food either from sunlight (primarily plants) or
from inorganic molecules (deep-sea vent dwellers, AKA chemotrophs)
Herbivore: an organism that eats plants
Ecology topic #13, p. 1 of 8
Generalized Framework for Population Interactions
Determined by the sign of the effect of one species on the other species dN/dt
Effect of spp 1 on spp 2
of spp 2 +
Mutualism (both spp
benefits, spp 2
predator, spp 2
Ecology topic #9, p. 1 of 6
Rarity, Spacing, and Territoriality
1. Different types of rarity (Rabinowitz 1981)
Ecology topic #15, p. 1 of 6
General categories of consumer-resource interactions (a.k.a. exploitation)
1. Predation: Predator kills prey relatively quickly
A. Wolves, killer whales, spiders, dragonflies,
2. Herbivory: Plants are
Ecology topic #10, p. 1 of 6
Population Structure and Dynamics
Deals with sex ratio and age structure of population, can also address
characteristics such as body size, condition of individuals, etc.
1. Definition: # males per female (/)
Ecology topic #11, p. 1 of 7
Population: individuals of a given species in a given place.
R0 = Net reproductive rate (i.e., average number of offspring per female over the course
of its lifetime, averaged across all ages)
Ecology topic #7, p. 1 of 6
Physiological Ecology: Energy
How does an organism get enough energy to survive?
Three questions: How much food to eat? What kind of food to eat? Where to eat it?
1. How much food to eat?
A. Organisms energy requirements are in
Ecology topic #16, p. 1 of 5
1. Definition: Interactions between individuals of different species that benefit both partners; a
(+,+) relationships. Mutualisms can:
A. Increase birth rates
B. Decrease death rates
C. Increase equilibrium populat
Ecology topic #2, p. 1 of 6
Conditions for Natural Selection According to Darwin
Natural selection: the differential survival and/or reproduction of organisms that differ in one or
1. Different individuals have different phe
BIO 262 Competition Assignment
adapted from Autumn 2007 BIOL334 curriculum
Hairston (1980) studied competition between two salamanders (Plethodon jordani & P. glutinosus) in
the eastern US. These two species exhibit different degrees of altitudinal overla
BIO 262 Demography Assignment
adapted from Autumn 2007 BIOL334 curriculum
You are part of a group of researchers examining the survivorship and fecundity of Bengal Tigers
(Panthera tigris tigris) in the Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in the South Ind
Ecology topic #3, p. 1 of 4
A. Predation is eating animals
B. Herbivory is eating plants
C. Both predation and herbivory are exploitation (one species benefits & one is harmed).
2. Five non-behavioral anti-predator adapta
Ecology topic #8, p. 1 of 5
1. Monogamy pair bond between and
A. Polygyny 1 , several
B. Polyandry 1 , several
3. Timing of pair bonds
A. Simultaneous multiple pair bonds occur at same time
I. Simultaneous polygyny 1 with 2 or more at same
Ecology topic #5/6, p. 1 of 6
1. Definition: the study of the relation of an individual organism to aspects of the physical
environment in which it lives
2. Different aspects of the physical environment can include temperature, moist
Ecology topic #12, p. 1 of 7
Life History Strategies
Three Major Questions
1. Scheduling of reproduction: how often do individuals reproduce?
2. Expenditure per offspring: how many resources should be devoted to any single offspring?
3. How many offspring
BIO 262 Recitation
1. Why do animals have certain body sizes, and how is the actual body size of an
Two hypotheses for the body size of the Galapagos marine iguana
September 18, 2010
Carbon plays more of a role in our everyday lives than we could even imagine.
Although we need oxygen to survive, our bodies are made up of mostly carbon
and carbon-based elements
Mrs. De Mayo
Biology 1 Honors
November 25, 2008
Genetic Disease Report: Sirenomelia
A very rare congenital defect, Sirenomelia was first documented in 1542. The
cause of Sirenomelia, or Mermaid Syndrome, is still unknown. It is not belie
Welcome to BIO404 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy!
Lab starts this week bring your textbook.
Lecture slides will be available on Sakai.
Lab handouts and supplemental files will be available on Sakaio.
6 Copies of Your Inner Fish are on r
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Chapter 5 Form and Function
This material is the last for lecture exam 1.
Lecture exam 1 is next week Tuesday Feb 19th.
100% average on the first Your Inner Fish discussion questions, Great
Job. The best an
BIO404 Spring 2013 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Study Guide Exam 1
In general, you should read the chapter prior to the lecture but not to memorize it. Read it so
that you are familiar with the material, then focus on what I go over in class for the exa
- From the Greek: oikos meaning home (eco-)
- Study of home
- Study organisms and their environment abiotic/biotic
o Abiotic = physiological, soil, topography (non living)
o Biotic = animals, plants (living)
CCD Colony collapse disorde
June 18, 2012
Ever since global warming has become a popular issue in todays society,
ecologist and other marine scientist have been naming it the leading factor in declining
coral reefs. Scientist today are trying to f
Ecology topic #25, p. 1 of 2
Why should we care about ecosystems?
Costanza et al 1997 The value of the worlds ecosystem services and natural capital Nature
Ecology topic #25, p. 2 of 2
Biodiversity Hot Spots
Hotspots - an attempt to determin
Ecology topic #19, p. 1 of 4
Productivity & energy flow
A. Biomass: The weight of an organisms living tissues, usually measured per unit area
over a particular time interval
B. Ecosystem: Biological community plus all of the factors influen
Ecology topic #14, p. 1 of 6
1. Definition: Ways in which species differ in their use of resources.
A. Types of resource partitioning
I. Food: size, hardness, and type
II. Space (or habitat):
a. Broad (macrohabita
Ecology topic #1, p. 1 of 2
Introduction to Ecology: Scope and Definitions
1. What is ecology?
A. The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.
B. The environment is the abiotic (physical surroundings) and the biotic (other
Ecology topic #18, p. 1 of 5
Species Abundance and Diversity
A. Species richness: The number of species in the community
B. Species evenness: The relative abundance of species; a measurement of how evenly
distributed organisms are among spe