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PART I: True-False
Below each question please indicate whether the statement is TRUE or FALSE.
1. An example of nonprobability sampling is interviewing people in malls.
Answer: true
2. Standard deviation is the maximum permissible difference between the s
The First Exam Will Have 59 TF(31) and MC(28) questions (1 point each)
and a Choice of Answering One of Two Short-Answer Questions (10 points)
This document is available on the class Sakai site under Resources > Handouts > Exam Information
Test questions
Hypothesis Testing
A Hypothesis
Summary measures of a population are called parameters
Summary measures of a sample are called statistics
A hypothesis is a tentative claim about the nature of a pop. parameter
Null hypothesis - H0: A hypothesis that is tes
RI DOT Data Set of Accidents
Occurring on RI Highways
EXPLORATION OF SAMPLE
FROM 2013 DOT DATA SET
Accident Rate
.
No Accidents
At Least One
8652
5378
Total Sample: 14,030
Helpful To Express The Results as Percentages
No Accidents
At Least One Accident
(8
Analysis of the Relationship
Between Two Variables
Those Two Variables are Related
What does that statement mean to you?
Dependent Variable (Y)
Independent Variable (X)
How do you Measure or Assess
The Issue of Sample Size
The Issue of Sample Size
First Some Refresher Material - -
Parameters are measures of populations.
Greek lower-case letters are used for notation
Examples: , ,
Statistics are measures of samples.
are used for notation
Examples x,
Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Variance
Used to analyze for significant differences between
three or more group means
- Interval Level Dependent Variable
- Involves More than Two Groups
- Normality
- Equality of Variances Assumed
Purpose: to determine w
Secondary Data & Census Data
Secondary Data
What is it
Data collected previous to the present
inquiry either by someone else OR the
present researcher(s)
Secondary Data
Advantages
Usually obtained quickly
and inexpensively
Aids in determining
direction
The Ford Explorer
The Ford Explorer Rollover Problem
Started Between 1990 and 1992
So, assume that Firestone has now developed a new tire
the Firestone 9000
It wants to make a mileage claim for its new tire it is
that the 9000 wears better than the Goody
The Issue of Sample Size
A question: How large should
sample be for an opinion poll
of Rhode Island citizens?
a
Then, how large should
a sample be for an opinion
poll of U.S. citizens?
What Should Influence the Sample Size?
What Should Influence the Sampl
Questionnaire Design
USA Today has come out with a new survey apparently
three out of every four people make up 75% of the
population. - - David Letterman
"If I had asked my customers what they wanted, they'd
have asked for a faster horse." - - Henry Ford
Why Sample?
Saves money
Saves time
A sample can be more accurate than a census since
it can result in fewer non sampling errors
When doing destructive testing preserves units
Sampling methods are the procedures that
primarily determine the generalizabl
Skool Assignment
February 19, 2015
BUS 367 Sec 1 (12:30)
Has the Research problem been adequately defined?
As stated in the proposal, the problem that management needs to research is the
change in people who support Rush Street bars or the change in opini
Validity, Reliability & Sensitivity
In Measurements
Measuring scales should be valid and reliable
Do you agree or disagree?
Validity
The validity of a measure indicates the extent to
which it measures some aspect of what is purported
to measure
Some Types
Qualitative Research Methods
Before you build a better mouse trap
it helps to know if there are any mice out there.
- - Yogi Berra
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
Characteristic
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research
To gain a qualitative
und
The Research Process
Sampling
Problem
discovery
Problem
Discovery
& Definition
Selection of
exploratory research
technique
Secondary
Experience
(historical)
survey
data
Pilot
study
Probability
Data
Gathering
Case
study
Data
Processing
& Analysis
Problem d
Feb 24, 2015
Section 1 (TTR 12:30pm)
Train Test Assignment
1) State whether there is an internal or external validity problem (both or
neither) with the experimental method that was used by the British to test
their train windshields. (Justify your answer
Choice of A Statistical Test
Some Influences on the
Choice of A Statistical Test
1. Number of Dependent and Independent Variables
Univariate vs. Multivariate
2. Type of Measurement Scale(s) Involved
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio
3. Number of Groups
BUS367
Lecture 14
Measure scale on reliability and validity
When results are close together they are reliable
To be valid it has to be close to the actual results you want to get
- can be unreliable due to random error (might be due to other factors that
BUS367
March 26, 2015
The circular problem
Circular reasoning
Start off saying you want to find the average consumer satisfaction
Mean Satisfaction
I want to find the average consumer satisfaction level for our product
Before you take the sample you ha
Analysis of the Relationship
Between Two Variables
Those Two Variables are Related
What does that statement mean to you?
Dependent Variable (Y)
Independent Variable (X)
Problem Definition
Problem Definition
The Marketing Manger:
has a Decision Problem - - it relates to the business
issue that needs to be addressed for example: Sales
Revenues are down what should we do?
How can we improve this situation?
The Marketing Res
How long / far / high / much / big / deep /
heavy / painful / soft / creamy / fat / dark /
scary / colorful / straight / uncomfortable /
tacky / good / hot/ cold / sweet / fun
is it?
Measurement
When you can measure
what you are speaking
about and express
Primary Data
Primary data are data collected specifically for the
purpose of a given, current research project.
They may be collected by the investigator, or for the
investigator, by some other individual/group.
Primary Data
Advantages
Answers a specific
Marketing Research
Marketing research is extremely important to the firms
ability to interact and respond to its environment
It links the organization with its market environment.
It helps management understand the environment,
identify problems and oppor
Ethical Considerations in Research
Ethics the study of what is morally right or
wrong and what is good and bad behavior
Infamous Cases: Ethical Violations
in Research Involving Humans
Infamous Cases: Ethical Violations
in Research Involving Humans
Nazi Wa