moles of solute
Molarity(M]: mol/L Molarity(M)=
liters (L) of solution
- Temperature dependent
Molality (m): mollKg solvent
- Denominator is kg solvent, NOT solution
- Not temperature dependent
moles of solute
Molality (m) =
mass of s
Rules for Working with Heat and Enthalpy
1. Use same multiplier as used in chemical reaction.
2 302 (g) + 02 (g) >2 503 (g) AH = -198.2 k]
2. Multiply or divide reactants and products, do the same for AH.
1 502 (g) + V: If)2 (g) ) 1 503 (g) AH = 498.2 HR
# combining orbitals = # hybrid orbitals
Combine one s orbital and 1 p orbital into 2 sp orbitals
Occurs when 2 VSEPR pairs (linear electron domain)
Combine one s orbital and 2 p orb
VSEPR Class Geometry Example Bond
2 (sp) AB2 LInear CI Be CI 180"
: F :
3 AB3 Trigonal Planar EL 120
(spZ) =1Fi/ \
ABZE Bent .O/\O < 120
4 AB4 Tetra hed ral C 109.5
(spB) / 2
ABBE Trigonal pyramidal H/N"\H < 109.5
ABZEZ Bent /O
Solubility Rules (Memorize!)
Another way to think about it: Table 4.2 in textbook is
another way to think about it.
1. Nitrates (N05) are soluble.
2. Compounds containing alkali metals or NH; are soluble
3. Most chlorides, bromides and iodides are solub
Oxidation Number (ON) Rules
Need to know!
The rule earlier in the list always takes precedence.
1. OH = O for a neutral molecule or a
2. OH = ionic charge for an ion
3. OH = -2 for oxygen in most
compounds except in H202 and 022'
4. ON = +1 f
- Lose or gain electrons as a group
Charge is spread over 2 or more atoms
Memorize the Following Polyatomic Ions
Mercury (I) H322+
Verbal Communication- written or oral words we exchange
7 functions of language: informative-use of language to communicate information or report facts,
imaginative- use of language to express oneself, instrumental-use of language to obtain what you ne
Midterm Study Guide
* The sociological imaginationThe capacity to think systematically about how things we experience as
personal problems. EX:debt from student loans
* Social contextsSocial contexts refer to social environ
SOC 230 Exam 2 Study Notes
Hirschi Social Control Theory
-focus on why individual doesnt commit crime
-our cond to society is what keeps us from commiting crime
-4 elemenets of social control
Attachement: Attachment to those around us (family,fri
-human communication is when people generate meaning through verbal and nonverbal messages
-7 components of human communication=message creation, meaning creation, setting, participants,
channels, noise, feedback
-Communication is transactional mod
Spanish 102 Final Exam Study Guide
The preterit tense: SINGE, COMPLETED, ACTION, PAST
Irregular forms; c > qu
g > gu
z > c
The Imperfect Te
History of Jazz Chapter 2 Study Questions
1. European music has more of a harmony and there are several instruments that can be hard in them
music. African music is more focused on the rhythm and blues.
2. When the Africans were brought over as