1. What are the factors that determine the number of communicating civilizations in our galaxy?
a. The factors that determine the number of communicating civilizations in our galaxy is:
a.i. N (number of communicating civilizations)
a.ii. R* (rate of form
Pwyll crater, 20 Km wide, Europa
Tyre crater, 40 Km wide, Europa
Europaa long list of cancelled missions
During the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the mid-ocean ridges, most of the water passes "off-axis".
What is meant by this? What is the average temperature that this water reaches? What temperature does the
water "on-axis" reach?
Rise of Oxygen
Give 3 examples of the type of information geologists use to determine when the
atmosphere became oxygen rich.
Why do geologists think that cyanobacteria began producing oxygen at least 200 million
years before the Great Oxidation Event?
Genomics Review Sheet (Exam 2)
1. In a few sentences, describe sequencing by synthesis.
2. Discuss two advantages of next-generation sequencing over older
3. Generally, what the two broad ways that next-generation sequencing
Alignment is the juxtaposition of the amino acids or nucleotides in two molecular
sequences to maximize similarity or minimize the number of inferred changes.
Bayesian inference is based on the notion of posterior probabilities: probabilities that are
BIOL/GEOSC 474 Astrobiology (Fall 2012)
Dr. Chris House
M W F 10:10 AM 11:00 AM
House Office Hours: Monday 11 AM to 12 PM in 218 Deike Bldg.
(or by appointment in 217 EESI)
Email: [email protected], Class Web Site on ANGEL
Planets and Life: The Eme
Atmospheric oxygenation caused by a change in volcanic degassing
Gaillard, Fabrice1,*; Scaillet, Bruno1; Arndt, Nicholas T.2
Institut des Sciences de la Terre dOrlans, CNRS-INSU/Universit dOrlans/Universit de
Tours, 1a rue de la Frollerie 45071
Discovery by Thomas D. Brock of thermophiles in late 1960s
Thermus from Yellowstone National Park!
Hydrothermal vents discovered
in 1977 at Galapagos rift by
Jack B. Corliss!
The Small Subunit rRNA Tree of Life
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2010 Science Plan
Science Mission Directorate
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK
Science Plan for NASAs Science Mission Dir
Beads on a string
S a la m a nde r
1. Current knowledge regarding HCN polymers:
their formation, properties, hydrolysis products
2. The Pre-RNA world: a new polynucleobase
model for the origin of nuc
Shark Bay, W. Australia!
1,300 Ma old ! 2,000 Ma old
3,350 Ma old!
The Search for Habitable Environments and
Life in the Universe
The NASA Astrobiology Institute
Habitability and Astronomical Biosignatures Focus Group
Victoria S. Meadows (Chair), University of Washington Astronomy Department
Volume 8, Number 4, 2008
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap
David J. Des Marais (Co-Lead),1 Joseph A. Nuth III (Co-Lead),2 Louis J. Allamandola,1
Alan P. Boss,3 Jack D. Farmer,4 Tori M
Monday, September 13, 2010
Monday, September 13, 2010
Many known exoplanets, observed through different
techniques - strong sample bias
Getting some handle on underlying properties
Strong post-formation ev
Thursday, September 9, 2010
First discovery of extrasolar planet:
PSR 1257+12 - 3 planets Wolszczan (1992)
Discovery around sun-like main sequence star:
51 Peg - short orbital perion hot Jupiter Mayor a
Nov. 12th, 1980
are broken apart by
light and the
ethane & acetylene.
The haze scatters
blue and ultraviolet
October 12, 2012
how do fossils form?
fluids of the organism are replaced with minerals
carbon replaces with Si or Ca
Fossils are most likely to form
Suvrath Mahadevan & Brandon Botzer
Astronomy& Astrophysics 1
Saturday, November 24, 2012
"There are infinite worlds
both like and unlike this
world of ours.We must
believe that in all worlds
there are living creatures
and planets and other
The Astrophysics of Planetary Systems: Formation, Structure, and
c International Astronomical Union 2011
Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 276, 2010
A. Sozzetti, M. G. Lattanzi & A. P. Boss, eds.
N = the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which radio communication
R* = the average rate of star formation per year in our galaxy
fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets
ne = the average number of planets that c
2012 REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 3
Mars, Europa, and Titan
Explain what is wrong with the idea that an early dense atmosphere of CO2 kept Mars warm and
then this atmosphere precipitated out?
If a dense CO2 atmosphere did not warm early Mars, describe two altern