The Social Gospel: The Church and Urban Challenges
-Religious denominations were experiencing a drop in membership as more and
more people moved to the cities and away from "traditional" country values
-The mounting rise of materialism and the Gospel of W
The Pendleton Act:
-Following Garfield's assassination, President Arthur signed the Pendleton
Act which brought about Civil Service Reform.
-The Pendleton Act prohibited "Pay to Play" Politics.
Office Seekers Must Now:
Financial assessments on jobholders
The New Morality:
-Morals and Morality were changing by 1900 as traditional family values were
leaving the country and moving into the cities.
-Victoria Woodhull: Believed in "Free Love" and was open about being a
-Anthony Comstock: Fought immora
The New Immigration:
-By 1880 more than 5 million immigrants came to the United States, primarily
from Italy, Croatia, Slovakia, Greece, Poland, Russia, Finland, Sweden,
-These immigrants made up more than 60% of new arrivals into the country.
The Battle of Bear Paw Mountain, 1877:
-The Nez Perce had left ancestral home in Oregon and attempted to ally
themselves with the Sioux.
-The Nez Perce were led by Chief Joseph
-Captured at the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain, Chief Joseph had been told by
Prohibition and Social Progress:
-Continuing the fight against alcoholism, militant women created the Women's
Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in 1874.
-The Anti-Saloon League was formed in 1893 with leaders like Carrie Nation,
who went into saloons with
-The two largest newspaper owners, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph
Hearst, competed openly, reporting sex scandals and other human-interest
stories that became known as "yellow journalism"
-Ironically Pulitzer would create the Pulitzer Prize which is
Italian immigrants were primarily Catholic along with other immigrants from
Eastern Europe: Croatia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Ukraine,
Finland, Sweden, Greece, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Turkey
Polish and Jewish Immigrants:
-Though Hull House was not the first settlement house, it spurred the
expansion and growth of other settlement houses in urban centers; NYC,
Newark, Philadelphia, Boston, Green Bay, San Francisco etc.
-For her work, Jane Addams won the Nobel Peace Prize i
-The Federal Government had signed two treaties with the tribes,
1. The Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851
2. The Treaty of Fort Atkinson, 1853
-Both treaties were meant to give private land to the Native
Americans, "Indian territory stretching from Nebraska, K