Why is DNA replication said to be semiconservative?
Because the daughter cells inherit one original strand and one new strand, this
replication is called semiconservative.
To which carbon of the deoxyribose in the incoming nucleotide is linked to
Chapter 2. Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis.
What are cells made of, and how are these things made?
Cells are made of relatively few types of atoms: C, O, N, and H are most common. P and S will also be frequently encountered. Rarer but essential elem
Lectures 33, 34 and 35 (Chapter 12): Intracellular Compartments / Protein Sorting
List 6 organelles found in a eukaryotic cell? Which of these organelles is not found in
Nucleus, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosome, ER
1. Which of the following types of bonds would be LEAST likely in a receptor-ligand interaction?
A. Ionic bond
B. Covalent bond
C. Hydrogen bond
D. Hydrophobic interaction
E. Metallic bond
2. Ka, the association constant, is a measure
1. MHC molecules:
A. are secreted by T cells and bind and neutralize antigen in the serum.
B. are membrane-bound molecules found exclusively on T cells.
C. bind repeating patterns found on pathogens.
D. are recognized by T cells.
E. are conserve
1. Which of the following complement fixation pathways can be initiated by a soluble C3 convertase?
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
2. Which of the following provides serine protease activ
1. All blood cells in an adult human can trace their ancestry to which compartment within the body?
B. Bone marrow
C. Lymph node
D. Peyer's patch
E. None of the above
2. A pluripotent stem cell can do which of the following?
1. Which of the following BEST encapsulates the findings of the Hozumi and Tonegawa experiments?
A. Every possible light chain that could be formed, in terms of receptor specificity, is encoded
by a separate gene within the human genome.
1. Which is the best definition of immunity?
A. The state of having been exposed to a pathogen repeatedly
B. The state of being resistant to reinfection with a pathogen
C. When an individual has never been exposed to a pathogen
D. When the immun
1. With regard to the type of B-cell response generated, protein antigens typically provoke which of
the following responses?
D. Both A and B
E. None of the above
2. Activated TH cells signal to B cells to initia
1. Central tolerance:
A. is the first step of tolerance mechanisms.
B. affects both T cells and B cells.
C. deletes cells that are autoreactive.
D. occurs in the bone marrow and thymus.
E. All of the above.
2. Which of the following s
1. What event initiates an adaptive immune response?
A. The interaction of a B cell with a TH cell
B. The expression of cytokines CD4 or CD8
C. The production of MHC class I or II molecules
D. The interaction of a nave T cell with an antigen-pr
1. What is the effector molecule of humoral immunity?
B. Cytotoxic T cells
C. Dendritic cells
D. Helper T cells
E. Plasma cells
2. The role of cell-mediated immunity is:
A. to find cells infected with intracellular patho
1. Primary immunodeficiencies:
A. are inherited.
B. are severe.
C. alter the complement pathway.
D. affect a range of cell types.
E. are contagious.
2. Primary immunodeficiencies are NOT:
A. extremely rare.
B. mostly monogenic.
Lectures 25 and 26: Molecular Biology Methods (Genetic and Genomic)
What is a Restriction Endonuclease? What is its function, and what does it
specifically recognize before doing that function?
DNA molecules can be cut into fragments with Restriction Endo
Lectures 27 and 28: Visualizing Cells
List the following in order of smallest to largest: wave length of red light, diameter
of a mammalian cell, length of a covalent bond, limit of resolution for a light
1. Covalent bond (tenths of nanometers
CHAPTER 3 PROTEINS
I. SHAPE AND STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
Components of a protein
20 amino acids Backbone Side chain Names Types Joined by Peptide bonds
Polypeptide = protein
Figure 3-1 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)
The Shape o
Chapter 3 II. PROTEIN FUNCTION
All Proteins Bind to Other Molecules
Figure 3-36 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)
Selective binding via precise docking - complementary surfaces. Driving forces - multiple weak interactions.
BMB/Micro 251, section 1
Molecular & Cellular Biology I
Dr. David Gilmour, 208 Althouse, 863-8905,
Class notes are posted on ANGEL. Review questions will
also be posted on ANGEL.
Office hours in 208 Althouse: Wednesday 1:30 - 3:30 or by
CHAPTER 4 DNA AND CHROMOSOMES
What is the Heritable Material?
Figure 4-2 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF DNA
Key features: Polynucleotide Double stranded Base pairing Antiparallel Helix Polarity
Class 1 review questions
What is the central dogma, and the meaning of the terms replication, transcription,
Central Dogma process by which the instructions in DNA are converted into a
functional product. The flow of information from DNA
Lect 4 review questions
A peptide bond forms between which two atoms in a polypeptide chain?
Carbon and nitrogen
What is an R-group or side chain? Whats the name of the carbon that its attached to?
Amino acids are generally all the same, with an amino ter
How many replication forks originate from a replication origin?
What is the relationship between telomere length and aging and immortality?
Hydrolysis causes what type of damage to bases?
How is depurination different from deamination?
What are primary cells and why are these more difficult to work with than immortal cells
Most vertebrate cells isolated from tissues have limited proliferative potential (primary
Immortalized or cancer cells proliferate in
What RNA is the most abundant RNA in the cell, and which RNA polymerase is
responsible for synthesizing it?
rRNA is most abundant. RNA polymerase III or I?
What is responsible for forming the nucleolus? What happens there?
Ribosomal RNA as they c
What do the three eukaryotic polymerases make?
Generally speaking: RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III transcribe
genes encoding transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA and various small RNAs. RNA
polymerase II is responsible for transcribing most gen
What are the different steps in the control of gene expression in eukaryotes? Which
occur in the cytoplasm and the nucleus?
What does the term motif mean?
Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns in DNA that are presumed to have a
Lectures 29 and 30: Membrane Structure, Lipid Bilayer, Membrane Proteins
Section 1: pg 565-576
What are the functions of the plasma membrane?
The plasma membrane separates cell components from the environment, allows
organelles to execute special function
Lectures 31 and 32 (Chapter 11): Carrier Proteins, Channels, Membrane Potential,
Action Potential, and Nervous Transmission
What is active transport and passive transport?
Active - Solutes move from a region of low concentration to high concentration. In
1. Viruses, like many good pathogens, have adapted to survive in their hosts. Which of the following
scenarios would be MOST favorable to viral transmission and long term survival of the viral species?
A. Virus X enters a host cell, produces ma