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BMB 251 - INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY - Penn State Study Resources
  • 19 Pages BMB251EXAM1
    BMB251EXAM1

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    There are 33 questions with only one correct answer for each question (3 points each). You have 60 min to finish the exam. Don't submit till you have finished the exam. 1. Which of the following statement about eukaryotes and prokaryotes is INCORRECT? A.

  • 22 Pages BMB251EXAM2
    BMB251EXAM2

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    There are 33 questions, 3 points each except question 1 is 4 points. Don't submit till you finish the last question or you are out of time. 1. Following statements, which one is INCORRECT about protein production? A. The rate of t ranscription regulates p

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 4 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 4 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 4 Protein Structure Components of a protein 20 amino acids Backbone Side chain Joined by Peptide bonds Polypeptide = protein Figure 3-1 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Steric collisions restrict the path of the polypeptide ba

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 7 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 7 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 7 Chromatin and DNA synthesis Human genome: 3,000,000,000 bp X 0.34 nm/bp X 2 copies = 3 meters How does the 3 meter genome fit in a 5 micrometer diameter nucleus? ? DNA in the nucleus is packaged with proteins in a complex called chromatin. When

  • 20 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 6 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 6 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 6 Control of proteins (cont.) Regulation by Phosphorylation KINASES add phosphates to proteins -called phosphorylation -phosphate is derived from ATP -side chains with -OH groups can be phosphorylated (serine, threonine, tyrosine) PHOSPHATASES rem

  • 20 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 5 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 5 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 5 Proteins as enzymes All Proteins Bind to Other Molecules Figure 3-36 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) (Also See Fig 3-42) Selective binding via precise docking - complementary surfaces. Driving forces - multiple weak interac

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 8 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 8 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 8 DNA replication mechanisms. DNA templates its own synthesis. Uses one of the two strands to make a new strand Because the daughter cells inherit one original strand and one new strand, this replication is called semiconservative. Figure 5-2 Mole

  • 14 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 10 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 10 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 10 DNA Repair Mechanisms used during replication 3 to 5 exonuclease proofreading activity by DNA polymerase increase fidelity. Strand-directed mismatch repair .but DNA is damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors after replication and must be re

  • 17 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 11 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 11 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 11 Recombination and mobile genetic elements Meiosis generates germ cells containing one maternal or paternal homolog and one sex chromosome per germ cell. Homologous recombination generates new combinations of alleles. a B a B b b b a B A A A All

  • 21 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 15 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 15 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Class 15 Translation in the ribosome Protein folding and destruction in cells The ribosome catalyzes amino acid addition using the mRNA as a guide for establishing the order of amino acid attachment. The precise placement of two successive tRNAs maintains

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 12 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 12 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 12 Transcription of DNA into RNA Central Dogma Figure 6-2 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Regulating the amount of RNA synthesized can regulate the amount of protein produced. Figure 6-3 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garlan

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 13 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 13 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 13 Eukaryotic transcription systems and RNA processing Bacteria and eucaryote RNA polymerase have similar structures. Figure 6-15 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Promoter recognition and initiation by eucaryotic RNA polymeras

  • 16 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 14 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 14 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Class 14: Export and RNA in translation If mRNAs pass all quality control checks, it is transported to the cytoplasm for translation Figure 6-40 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Mature mRNA associates with numerous proteins and is exp

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 16 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 16 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 16 Control of Gene Expression: DNA binding Proteins Prokaryotic switches Formation of different cell types occurs by synthesizing different RNA and proteins, not by permanent changes in the DNA sequence. The formation of a specific type of cell is

  • 16 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 17 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 17 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 17 Gene regulatory mechanisms I Prokaryotic switches II Eukaryotic transcription and chromatin The Lac operon was one of the first regulatory pathway discovered. Lac operon is regulated by two factors, a repressor and and activator Bacteria prefer

  • 17 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 1 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 1 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    BMB/Micro 251 Molecular & Cellular Biology I Dr. Joseph Reese, 463A North Frear, 865-1976, jcr8@ psu.edu Dr. Lui Bai, 206B LSB Lub15@psu.edu Class notes and other materials are posted on ANGEL. Office hours in 463A North Frear: TBD or by appointment. Time

  • 19 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 30 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 30 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 30 Transporters and active membrane transport. The phospholipid bilayer is a barrier that controls the transport of molecules in and out of the cell. Remember: the lipid bilayer is impermeable to many essential molecules used by the cell Figure 11

  • 12 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 34 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 34 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 34 Chapter 12 Endoplasmic reticulum: post-translational protein modification and lipid biosynthesis Nascent polypeptides enter the ER lumen unfolded Chaperone called BiP in the lumen associates with hydrophobic surfaces to prevent aggregation and

  • 16 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 29 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 29 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 29 Membrane protein and small molecule transport Membrane proteins are often classified as peripheral membrane proteins or integral membrane proteins based on what is required to extract the protein from a membrane. Integral membrane proteins - th

  • 17 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 28 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 28 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 28 Chapter 10 Membrane proteins Membrane proteins: Since The lipid bilayer is impermeable, movement of materials and communication between the inside and outside of the cell are mediated by membrane proteins As with most aspects of a cell, protein

  • 18 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 18 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 18 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 18 :Gene regulatory mechanisms II epigenetic regulation Post-transcriptional control of gene expression Genetic versus epigenetic regulation of expression Epigenetic: inheritable changes in gene expression that does not require changes in DNA sequ

  • 34 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 30-31 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 30-31 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 30 (Reese) Ion Channels and the electrical properties of membranes. The phospholipid bilayer is a barrier that controls the transport of molecules in and out of the cell. Charged molecules are virtually impermeable. Involves transporters and chann

  • 17 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 33 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 33 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 33 Chapter 12 Peroxisomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Cotranslational transport Peroxisomes have a single membrane They perform oxidation reactions that breakdown fatty acids and toxic molecules that enter the cell from the blood stream. Genetic defec

  • 30 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 36-37 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 36-37 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 36 Chapter 13 ER > Golgi When the protein is properly folded, the protein is collected in COPII coated vesicles. These vesicles fuse with each other to form the vesicular tubular cluster that then fuses with the cis-Golgi network. * Figure 13-23b

  • 15 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 35 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 35 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 35 Chapter 13 Vesicular formation and targeting Once proteins that dont normally reside in the ER are properly folded, they are transported to the Golgi apparatus Figure 13-3 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) TheGolgiistheGrand

  • 23 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 2 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 2 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 2 Chapter 2. Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis. Cells are made of relatively few elements: C, O, N, and H are most common. Rarer but essential elements include P, S, Cl, Ca, K, Na, Fe. (Includes water which constitutes 70% of the cells mass) Figure

  • 24 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 3 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 3 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 3 Chapter 2 Cellular Building blocks (cont.) Energetics and Metabolism Nucleotides Figure 2-26 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008) Phosphate - ribose sugar - pyrimidine/purine base Purine: adenine or guanine; Pyrimidine: cytosine

  • 14 Pages BMB 251 Lecture 9 Slide
    BMB 251 Lecture 9 Slide

    School: Penn State

    Course: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

    Lecture 9 DNA replication in cells DNA synthesis begins at a replication origin, which is a specific DNA sequence. Bi-directional synthesis Replication bubble forms and grows as replication progresses Two replication forks move away from each other Figure

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