Plasma membrane or cell membrane
Between cytoplasm and cell wall
Similarities to human cells
Structure and components
Phospholipids in membranes
Immune defense network
Human being's own internal defense system
o Recognizes and attacks pathogens (disease causing microorganisms)
o Recognizes abnormal cells (malignant cells)
Important in recognizing/preventing cancer
o Collective effort determines
Medically important bacteria
1. Gram positive:
o Spherical, grow in clusters naturally
o Found on skin (always), adapted to high salt and mildly acidic
o Staphaureus: major pathogen
Carried even when healthy, carried by 10-20%
Virus: Latin for poison/venom
o Described in late 1800s; couldnt be seen
Could filter out bacteria and found that bacteria free filtrates
still could transmit/cause disease
Knew it was infectious and smaller than bacteria
First seen in 1940s with elec
1. Define: anabolism, catabolism and amphibolic pathways
Anabolism- synthesis of macromolecules requiring energy input
Catabolism- Breakdown of complex molecules that produces energy,
reductants, and heat
Amphibolic pathway- reversible metaboli
2. Biological Macromolecules
1. What is an atom?
It is the basic unit of a chemical element.
2. What is a molecule?
A group of atoms bonded together. It is smallest fundamental unit of a chemical
compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
4. Nucleic Acids
1. List the constituent parts of a nucleotides
5c sugars-RNA DNA
2. What is the relationship between a nitrogenous base, a nucleoside and
A nitrogenous base is the purine and pyrimidine rings. A nucle
Environmental Factors and Growth
1. What is an extremophile?
An organism that grows under extreme conditions such as pH, temp,
2. Make a list of the three cardinal temperatures
Minimum, optimum, maximum
3. In what manner does a psychrophile d
1. Introduction to Microbes
1. What is a key feature that distinguishes viruses from bacteria from cellular
forms of life?
Viruses and bacteria do not have a nucleus. Viruses are not fully functional
cells. They cannot replicate on their own.
2. Are some
Gene Structure and Transcription
1. What is a cistron and what is the meaning of a monocistronic and
A cistron is a gene. A monocistronic transcript has one gene or cistron
to transcribe, a polycistronic contains multiple.
Metabolism (General Features)
1. What differentiates an endergonic reaction from an exergonic
reaction? How are they related to catabolic and biosynthetic
Endergonic is energetically unfavorable, exergonic is energetically
1. How is a simple microscope different than a compound microscope?
A single has one lens. A compound has more than one.
2. What is the magnifying power of a microscope?
Strength of a microscope related to the focal lens length (f). Small f=
Microbial Nutrition and Growth
1. Make a list of all six major elements.
N, C, H, O, P, S
2. Name two minor and two microelements.
Minor- Ca, K, Mg
Micro- Mn, Zn, Co
3. Make a list of how organisms are classified based on how they acquire:
1. What is the main reductant used in anabolic reactions?
2. What is the Calvin cycle and how is it dependent on the light reactions
The Calvin cycle is a reductive pentose pathway with 3 stages.
4. Prokaryotic Cell Structure
1. Make a list of the three domains of life
Archaea, bacteria, eukarya
2. Name the main features that distinguishes a prokaryote from a eukaryote
3. What are the Archaebacteria?
4. Make a list of four shapes of bacter
Control of microorganisms:
Disinfection/sanitation: significant reduction in number of microbes, but not get
rid of every single living things
Sterilization: all living things killed, nothing left will ever grow
o Virus later cant do anything associated
Foods in which growth of microbes: good thing
Contributes flavor and aroma and vitamins
Make vitamins our bodies cant
Improves preservation and storage properties
Makes organic acids: low ph inhibits growth of other microbes
Text posted on ANGEL
Everything you need to know about:
Nucleic acid structure
Gene expression or protein synthesis
a) Transcription of mRNA from DNA
b) Translation of mRNA to produce protein
Exam will ONLY cover
Chapter 4 Study Guide (Lectures 6, 7, and 8)
What is meant by the 5' and 3' end of DNA. Why are the two strands of DNA considered antiparallel?
DNA read 5 3 direction
3 : when the format is sugar-phosphate
5 : when the format is phosphate-sugar
Lecture 1 Study Guide (Chapter 1): Cells and Genomes
What is the central dogma, and the meaning of the terms replication, transcription,
Central Dogma: the coded genetic information hard-wired into DNA is transcribed into
1. Introduction to Microbes
1. What is a key feature that distinguishes viruses from bacteria from cellular forms of life?
Viruses are acellular, they lack cells, and arent living
Cellular life has a basal cell membrane
2. Are some bacteria capable of p
Contains reagent for growth of fastidious (picky) microbes
Ex. blood agar, charcoal
Permits the growth of only certain microbes within a mixed population
Ex. McConkey's contains bile salts
Gram positives are sensitive
Biology: the science of living organisms and their constituent parts
Microbiology: deals with small organisms, i.e. usually too small to be seen
with the unaided eye
Includes both cellular and acellular life forms
Bacteria (E. coli)
September 14, 2016 Notes
a. Known chemical composition
a. Unknown chemical composition, but "rich" (ex: McConkeys)
a. Contains reagent for growth of fastidious (picky) microbes (Ex: Blood agar, C
Retrovirus replication: reverse transcriptase
1. RNA dependent DNA polymerase
a. Degrades (+) RNA
b. Leave (-) DNA
3. DNA dependent DNA polymerase
a. DNA to DS DNA (+/- DNA), DS DNA= provirus
i. Provirus: move into nucleus to be inc
Virus: Latin meaning poison/venom
Organisms that were first discovered in late 1800s; still cant be seen during this
Found that bacteria-free filtrates could still cause disease
Could be passed; infections
First seen in 1940s, needed electron m
o Had germ theory
o Had methods of prevention
o Can understand infectious disease and do things to prevent
Cant do much after infection occurs: cant treat person
At this time; big emphasis on sanitation, disinfection
5. Eukaryotic Cell Structure
1. What is the cytoskeleton?
A collection of filamentous proteins that create structure and aid movement of
a. What are the three types of filaments that constitute the cytoskeleton
Microfilament, intermediate filaments,