ADMJ Review Notes: Criminal Justice the management of the criminal justice system, including the study of police, courts, and corrections in addition to criminology Criminology the study of the causes of crime and the treatment of offenders. C.O.P.
Similarities and differences in the adult and juvenile justice system are the following. In the adult decisions are made as result of adversarial system in context of due process rights where in the juvenile are made as a result of inquiry into needs
There are five different periods in the development of the justice system. They are the Puritan Period, Refuge period, and Juvenile court period, Juvenile rights period, Crime control period.
The puritan period (1646-1824) which was the earliest att
Work and educational release are when inmates are released from correctional institutions during the day to work or attend school. Furloughs are the temporary release of an inmate from a correctional institution for a brief period, usually one to thr
The different release mechanisms are discretionary release, mandatory release, other conditional release, and expiration release. Discretionary release is the release of an inmate from prison to conditional supervision at the discretion of the parole
The roles and responsibilities of correctional officers are guarding, counsel, supervise, protect, and process inmates under their care. The officer also works as a member of a detailed bureaucratic organization and is expected to deal with clients i
The three different models of incarceration are custodial model, which figures that prisoners are incarcerated for the purpose of incapacitation, deterrence, or retribution. It stresses security, discipline, and order as it subordinates the prisoner
Probation involves the offenders referred to as probationers to live at home and work at regular jobs, they must report regularly to their probation officers. They must also adhere to certain conditions, such as submitting to drug tests, obeying curf
4. Reasons for the striking rise in the U.S. prison population since 1980 include improved law enforcement and prosecution, tougher sentencing, prison construction, the war on drugs, and state politics. Improved law enforcement and prosecution meanin
3. The main difference between the community model of corrections and the crime control model of corrections in the former the main purpose should be to reintegrate the offender into the community where the latter makes greater use of incarceration,
2. The sentencing guidelines are a tool to show to judges the expected sanction for certain offenses, in order to reduce disparities in sentencing. They are designed to limit the sentencing discretion of judges and reduce disparity among sentences gi
1. The aims of the four main goals of punishment are retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Retribution also called deserved punishment is punishment inflicted on a person who has infringed on the rights of others and so deserve
2. The reasons why according to some people appeals should be limited are that too many offenders delay imposition of their sentences and others seek to evade punishment by filing appeals endlessly which not only increases the workload of the courts
1. The steps of a trial in the U.S. court system vary depending on what type of trial is occurring. There are two types of trials. One is a trial by jury, a group of citizens selected according to law and sworn to determine matters of fact in a crimi
2. Advantages of plea-bargaining are plea-bargaining leads to the prompt and largely final disposition of most criminal cases. Plea-bargaining reduces the time that pretrial detainees must spend in jail. If they plead guilty to serious charges, they
1. There are six principles that some claim should guide bail setting. The first is accused is entitled to be released on his or her own recognizance now I feel that allowing this would be a grave error in that allowing defendants to be released on r
2. The three methods used to provide counsel for indigent defendants are assigned counsel which is when the court appoints a lawyer in private practice to represent an indigent defendant now this happens in one of two ways ad hoc system or coordinate
1. The three models of policy implementation that emerged from Jacoby's study of prosecutors' management styles are legal sufficiency, system efficiency, and trial sufficiency. In the legal sufficiency model the presence of the minimum legal elements
The typical levels of state courts include courts of limited jurisdiction, courts of general jurisdiction, intermediate level appellate courts, and courts of last resort. Courts of limited jurisdiction are criminal courts with trial jurisdiction over
There are five methods of judicial selection. They are gubernatorial appointment, legislative selection, merit selection, nonpartisan election, and partisan election. Gubernatorial appointment is when the governor, which would indicate that appointee
4. The strengths and weaknesses of the four techniques used to ensure that police remain accountable to the community. The four techniques used are Internal Affairs Units, Civilian review Boards, Standards and Accreditation, and Civil Liability Suits
3. Stereotyping, cultural differences and language differences make the job of policing in urban areas difficult.
Stereotyping is assigning certain characteristics to an individual because they are a member of a group whether based on race, gender,
2. There are four types of stress to which officers are subjected these are external stress, organizational stress, personal stress, and operational stress. First is external stress.
External stress is created by real threats and dangers ranging fro
1. Danger and the need to exert authority affect the working personality of police officers by making them suspicious of everyone everywhere and a high state of alert. They may feel constantly on edge and worried about possible attacks due to stories
3. There are six types of searches that may be conducted without a warrant and still be in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. They are the special needs beyond the normal purposes of law enforcement which can cover anything that looks out of place
2. A large city with a dense, ethically diverse population and a high unemployment rate where the city as a whole has a high crime rate but most serious crime is located in a few extremely poor neighborhoods would most benefit service style which wou
1. The three historical periods of American policing were the Political Era: 18401920, the Professional Model Era: 1920-1970, and the Community Policing Era: 1970present. I will be taking a closer look at each era describing the style of policing was
2. The main differences between criminal law and civil law is criminal covers violations against society and civil law regulates relations between individuals. Criminal law sources are found in constitutional law as defined by the U.S. Constitution,
1. Americans are guaranteed certain rights according to the U.S. Constitution especially in regards to criminal justice. They are the fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments. The Fourth protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures
3. I will compare as well as contrast the rights of criminal defendants with the rights now afforded to victims of crime. Rights afforded to criminal defendants are covered in the U.S. Constitution. The Fourth Amendment prevents unreasonable searches