NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Irradiation Growth
1
Fuel rod length changes
Stress free axial elongation due to irradiation growth.
Anisotropic creep (before pellet/cladding contact) due to external reactor
system pressure.
Because
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
High Burnup and Accident Behavior
1
Introduction
Until 15 years ago, most fuel discharged from reactors had burnups on the
order of 30-40 GWd/t, but this number has been increasing steadily over the
las
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Jeremy Bischof
Waterside Corrosion of Zircaloy and
steels
Main objective for Nuclear Materials is
to avoid material failure
Material failure (cladding or structural materials)
can lead to release of radioactivity to the e
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Dimensional Instability: Swelling and Creep
1
Irradiation Effects and Microstructural Evolution
In the previous section, the process of defect creation, recombination, clustering and absorption
at sinks
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Irradiation Hardening and Embrittlement
1
Irradiation Hardening and Embrittlement Application to the Pressure Vessel
In light water reactors, (LWR), the principal pressure boundary is the reactor vessel
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class 14 Radiation Damage
1
Radiation Damage
Energetic particles (either charged particles or neutrons) can cause damage to solids by
colliding with the atoms in the solid, giving them enough energy to
NucE/MatSE 523
Nuclear Materials
Microstructure Evolution Under Irradiation
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
1
The fraction of Freely-Migrating defects
The NRT value is a standard but it is only a measure of how many
displacements are created at the peak of damage
0.
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class # Alloys
1
Class 16: Alloys Utilized in Nuclear Applications
Two main classes of alloys are used for fuel cladding,
structural materials and for the reactor pressure vessel: Zr alloys
and steels.
NUCE 409
Class 1: Introduction/
the Nuclear Fission Source
Light Water Reactors
J.R.Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Ch.4
Olander, 10.1,
R.L.Murray, Nuclear Energy, Pergamon Press
Part of the information in this chapter is from Joseph
Gounyea
NUCE 409
Crystal Structures
Reading:C. Kittel, "Introduction to Solid State Physics", ch. 1
text, chapter 3.
NucE/MatSE409
Crystals
Crystals: Three-dimensional periodic arrangement of atoms. Since crystalline
arrangement is most stable, most solids are cr
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class # 6
1
Mechanical Properties of Metals
Mechanical properties are basic material properties that describe
how strong a material is, how much does it deform for a specified
load, and when does it fai
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class # 4
1
Lattice Defects
Reading: Kittel, Chapter 18, text chapter 6, Haasen
chapters 10-11
The previous section deals with perfect, infinite crystals,
that have no defects. Such crystals do not exis
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class # 11
Phase Diagrams
1
Phase Diagrams in Materials Systems
Ref:
P. Gordon, "The Principles of Phase Diagrams
Materials Systems", McGraw Hill, 1968
Notes by D. deFontaine, UC Berkeley
text, chapter
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class # 5
1
Interstitials
An interstitial is an extra atom in the structure. It can be intrinsic (in
the case of self-interstitial atoms (SIA) or extrinsic (when the defect is an impurity). The
lattice
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Dr. Arthur T. Motta
Class 8 Diffusion
1
Transport Processes : Diffusion in Solids
text chapter 7
Porter and Easterling Chapter 2
Diffusion in solids refers to the motion of atomic species (atoms,
defects). For diffusion to
Sane“? EON g/E—(leé
Name :
The Pennsylvania State University
Department of Nuclear Engineering
Final Exam
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials Engineering
Prof. Arthur T.Motta
10:10-12 noon on Thursday, May 2, 2006
Closed book exam, three handwritten sheets o
W
we Pennsylvania State University
Department of Nuclear Engineering
Second Mid-Term Exam
Spring 2008
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Prof. Arthur T.Motta
April 22, 2008
Time: 75 minutes, Closed Book Examination
Consultation allowed to 2 8.5 x 11 sheet
Name:
The Pennsylvania State University
Department of Nuclear Engineering
Second Mid-Term Exam
Spring 2005
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials
Prof. Arthur T.Motta
April 14, 2005
_
Time: 75 minutes, Closed Book Examination
Consultation allowed to 8.5 x 11 sh
The Pennsylvania State University
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
1‘it Mid—term Exam
NucEfMatSE 409 Nuclear Materials
Prof. Arthur T.Motta
March 5, 2008
1:00 pm to 2:15 pm
Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes, Closed Book Examination,
with consu
Name:
The Pennsylvania State University
Department of Nuclear Engineering
1st Mid-term Exam
NucE/MatSE 409
Nuclear Materials Engineering
Prof. Arthur T.Motta
March 3, 2005
1:00 pm to 2:15 pm
_
Time: 1:15 minutes, Closed Book Examination,
with consultation
NUCE/MATSE 409
Homework 5
Problem 1:
1
2
3
4
5
The material begins at point 1 as a pure liquid at 1750 C and 10% Cr. It stays purely liquid as it
cools down to approximately 1700 C at point 2. At point 2, a solid -Zr phase begins to form at
approximately
NUCE / MATSE 409
HOMEWORK 6 SOLUTION
Problem 1
(a)
The damage rate can be found by integrating the product of the displacement cross section and
flux over the applicable neutron energy range.
( ) ( )
=
The displacement cross section can be expressed in th
NUCE/MATSE 409
HOMEWORK 8 SOLUTION
Problem 1
(a)
The weight gain at the cubic-to-linear transition is given by
= 75 exp 550/ )
(
Inserting the temperature of 340 C (613 K) results in
= 75 exp 550/613)
(
= 30.58
/
This can be converted to thickness usin
NUCE / MATSE 409
HOMEWORK 7 SOLUTION
Problem 1
(a)
The equilibrium of a system is defined by the minimum Gibbs free energy. The equilibrium
vacancy concentration is determined by two counteracting elements: the energy and entropy of
vacancy formation. The
NUCE/MATSE 409
Homework 3
Problem 1
Note: I am providing two solutions due to a common misinterpretation of the problem statement.
The equilibrium concentration of vacancies can be given by the equation
=
Free energy can be expressed by
=
+
The thermal e
NUCE 409 HOMEWORK 1
Problem 1:
There are many economic reasons to study the behavior of materials during reactor irradiation,
including:
By studying the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, it is possible to assess whether
it is still safe to operat
NUCE/MATSE 409
Homework 4
Problem 1:
The solution for the concentration is
=
( )
where
=
2
Because C0 = 1, the solution becomes
=
( )
(a)
The concentrations to look for are 0.5 and 0.1. The first step is to find the values of X that, when
plugged into the