Major Premise: If a country has a strong economy, the government will be popular. Minor
Premise: The government is not popular. Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have a
economy. Is this a valid argument? Yes
Major Premise: If a coun
PL SC 003 EXAM 2 Study Guide Penn State
the expression of social group's needs and demands to their
government in almost every political system
the expression of interests that often involves disapproval or
International (Between nations)
Ch. 8: Former and Current Communist Regimes
1. Which of the following nations is NOT considered reasonably democratic? Russia
2. After World War II, the majority of countries that became communist did so as a r
11. Education spending increases under left-wing governments Is this a scientific statement?
12. Iceland is a country. Is this a scientific statement?
13. Religious faith assures a person a place in the afterlife. Is this a scientific statement? No
PL SC 003 FINAL EXAM Study Guide Penn State
What are the two ways of evaluating political systems? :
Consequentialist ethics and Deontological ethics
Define Consequentialist ethics? :
evaluate actions, policies, or institutions in regard to the
Federalism and Decentralization
It is useful to distinguish between
federalism in structure (de jure federalism)
and federalism in practice (de facto federalism).
De jure federalism Federalism.
De facto federalism Decentralization.
Federalism has three st
Major Premise: If a country has a strong economy, the government will be popular. Minor Premise: The government is not popular.
Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have a strong economy. Is this a valid argument?
Major Premise: If a c
PL SC 003 Comparative Politics Final
1 The British National Health service is the most expensive budgetary item in the UK. False
2 French Citizens are highly critical of their government but support their system overall.
3 - The second largest relig
PolSci Study Guide
SECTION A MATERIAL I) What is comparative politics? A) Studying the relations between states and other political organization in international systems B) Seeking differences and similarities with respects to patterns, processes, an
- involves the manipulation of tax and spending decisions
to accomplish governmental goals.
Political economy model.
- Economic policy is typically made by elected officials
- who may have goals other than stable growth.
- Economic policies
Electoral laws influence fiscal policy.
Proportional representation countries have higher fiscal activity.
- More public goods
Larger and more redistributive welfare states.
- Larger overall size of government.
Proportional representation leads to redistr
Veto Player Theory
Veto player theory
- offers a way to think about political institutions in a consistent way across countries.
Veto player theory
conceptualizes the institutional structure of a given country
in terms of its configuration of veto players
- refers to the commitment of governments
- to accept the legitimacy of, and be governed by,
a set of authoritative rules and principles
that are laid out in a constitution.
A system of constitutional justice
A political party
can be thought of as a group of people
- that includes those who hold office and those who help get and keep them there.
Political parties serve four main purposes.
1 Structure the political world.
2 Recruitment and socialization of poli
Why do some countries have many parties and others have few?
- Social divisions are the primary driving force behind the formation of parties.
influence how social divisions are translated into political parties.
A unicameral legislature
- is one in which legislative deliberation occurs in a single assembly.
A bicameral legislature
- is one in which legislative deliberation occurs in two distinct assemblies.
- About 40% of the worlds countries have bi
Parliamentary, presidential, and semi-presidential democracies
can be viewed as different systems of delegation.
- is an act where one person or group:called the principal
- relies on another person or group:called an agent,
- to act on the pri
Democracies are sometimes classified in terms of their electoral system.
An electoral system
- is a set of laws that regulate electoral competition
between candidates or parties or both
Elections are central to the very nature of contemporary democratic r
A proportional, or proportional representation (PR),
- electoral system is a quota- or divisor-based electoral system
- employed in multimember districts.
The rationale behind PR systems
is to produce a proportional translation of votes into seats.
There are two types of semi-presidential democracy.
1 In a premier-presidential system
the government is responsible to the legislature
- but not the president.
2 In a president-parliamentary system
- the government is responsible to the legislature and t
Chapter 12: Types of Democracies
Form of gov can be Parliamentary, Presidential or Semi-Presidential.
Legislative Responsibility: legislative majority has power to remove a government without cause.
Vote of no confidence: initiated by legislature - gov mu
Presidentialism vs. Parliamentarism
The perils of presidentialism
- Concentration of power over policy.
- Difficulty in making policy quickly.
- Difficulty in locating responsibility for policy.
- Difficulty in making comprehensive
is rare, while ethnic cooperation is common
Ethnically heterogeneous African countries
- have lower economic growth than ethnically homogeneous African countries.
Governments may derive less satisfaction from providing public goods
Chapter 5 - Self-Understanding
Lecture Notes for 02/11/16
Schachters Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
First experience Arousal
Next we look for a reason for that arousal
Finally, the arousal coupled with the reason allow us to provide an Emotion label
Chapter 5 - Self-Understanding
What is the self?
Reflection of the Self-concept
Cognitive representation of the self
East/West differences in the self-concept
Independent view of self: define self in terms of ones own thoughts, feelings, actions
Chapter 13: Elections and Electoral Systems
Democracies can be classified in terms of their electoral system.
set of laws that regulate electoral competition
distinguished based on electoral formula: determines how votes translate to seats
Chapter 15: Institutional Veto Players
I) Federalism, bicameralism, constitutionalism
A) Federalism: sovereignty is split between at least 2 territorial levels so that independently
governmental units at each level have final authority in at least 1 polic
Chapter 14 Review: Social Cleavages and Party Systems
Political Party Systems
nonpartisan democracy: no official parties
single party system: one party legally allowed to hold power
one-party dominant system: only one has realistic chance at gaining po
The Perseverance and Success of Democracy in Costa Rica
Despite a plethora of obstacles and an unfortunate geographical position between
multiple Central American countries which have a history of political instability, Costa Rica has