and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased. As
of 2011, about six million foreign citizens (7.7% of the population)
were registered in Germany.
The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant
background. Regarding i
confessions. Germany almost lost its Jewish minority during the
Holocaust and the country's religious makeup changed gradually
in the decades following 1945, with West Germany becoming
more religiously diversified through immigration and East
declared themselves to be Muslims. More recent estimation
suppose, there are between 2.1 and 4 million Muslims living in
Germany. Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from
Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and
1. Museum. United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.
Retrieved 11 June 2016.
2. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 156160.
3. Jump up^ Shirer, William L., The Rise
and fall of the Third Reich, Simon and
Schuster (1960) p.31.
4. Jump up^ Williamson
Games of 1972.
Fashion and design
Main article: German fashion
Claudia Schiffer, Germansupermodel
German designers were leaders of modern product design, with
the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe, and Dieter
Rams ofBraun being essential.
. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January
2014. Retrieved 19 March2011.
Jump up^ Freed, John C. (4 April
2008). "The leader of Europe? Answers
an ocean apart". The New York Times.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
Jump up^ "Aims of German development
2. Union. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 20 May 2013.
Retrieved 14 June 2011. After signature
by all 27 Heads of State and
governments, the Treaty will travel back
to Brussels, where it will be officially
sealed with the seals of the 27 Member
Jump up^ "The 15 countries with the
highest military expenditure in 2011".
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
Jump up^ "Einsatzzahlen Die Strke der
deutschen Einsatzkontingente" (in
German).Bundeswehr. Retrieved 11
Jump up^ Connolly, Kate
many renowned Baroque masters were Pppelmann, Balthasar
Neumann, Knobelsdorff and the Asam brothers.
The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at
times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in
the 18th century. The Upper
2. Jump up^
3. Jump up^ "Regionales Monitoring 2010
Daten und Karten zu den Europischen
Deutschland" (PDF) (in German).
Bundesamt fr Bauwesen und
Raumordnung. 2010. p. 10. Retrieved 11
4. Jump up^ "Basic Law for t
International Transport Forum. 2012.
Retrieved15 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Road density (km of road per
100 sq. km of land area)". World Bank.
2014. Archived from the original on 1
January 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
Jump up^ "AutobahnTemporegelung"
and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by
the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an
international level. The Grimms also gathered and codified
regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in
1. Germany. Cambridge University
Press.ISBN 978-0-521-36836-0, pp. 9
2. Jump up^ Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey,
Peter; Cameron, Averil (2005). The crisis
of empire, A.D. 193337. The Cambridge
Ancient History. 12. Cambridge University
Press. p. 442. ISBN 0-
sculptors as Otto Schmidt-Hofer, Franz Iffland, and Julius
Schmidt-Felling made important contributions to German art
history in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Several German art groups formed in the 20th century, such as
the November G
andJump up^ Hugo Ehrt, Neuer Harzbote. Heft 13,
Fremdenverkehrsverein Bodfeld/Harz, Elbingerode (Harz),2003,
p.565. Schtz and Gruber, Mythos Reichsautobahn: Bau und
Inszenierung der "Straen des Fhrers" 19331941, Berlin: Links,
1996, ISBN 9783861531173, pp
The Hospice of the Holy Spirit inLbeck, established in 1286, is a
precursor to modern hospitals.
Germany's system of hospices, called spitals, dates from
medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's
oldest universal health caresystem, d
directors such as Volker Schlndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim
Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German
auteur cinema to critical acclaim. German movies such as Das
Boot (1981), The Never Ending Story (1984), Good Bye,
Lenin! (2003), Head On (20
the fall of the
and Jump up^ In recognized minority languages of Germany:
Danish: Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland
Low German: Bundesrepubliek
Upper Sorbian: Zwjazkowa Republika
Lower Sorbian: Nimska Zwzkowa
Romani: Federalni Re
1. "Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:
A Note". Europe-Asia Studies 46 (4):
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Ian Kershaw.Stalinism
and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison.
Cambridge University Press, 1997,
p.150 ISBN 0-521-56521-9
3. Jump up^ Overmans,
1. ) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals,
Methodists, and various other Protestants
being only a recent development.
2. Jump up^ Such organizations are
corporations under public law with the
power to levy compulsory taxes on their
members. The tax rate
1. Jump up^ The Latin name Sacrum
Imperium (Holy Empire) is documented
as far back as 1157. The Latin
name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Holy
Roman Empire) was first documented in
1254. The full name "Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation" (Heiliges
significance of these three
largest religion in the country. In the 2011 census, 1.9% of
Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely
related to and classified alongside Low German, Dutch, Frisian
and English languages. To
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions
as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent
wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and
other practices. As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 40
Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), because of the major
role its writersand
Resort architecture on Rgen, timber framing in Bernkastel,
the Schloss Neuschwanstein and the Elbe
Philharmonic in Hamburg.
Expressionist architecture develo
Retrieved 26 March 2011.
ved 19 March 2011.
Jump up^ "Gross domestic product
(2009)" (PDF). The World Bank: World
Development Indicators database. World
Bank. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 1
Field listing GDP (official exchange
up to 300 km/h (186 mph). The German railways are
subsidised by the government, receiving 17.0 billion in 2014.
The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich
Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa,
30 June 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
Jump up^ "Energy imports, net (% of
energy use)". The World Bank Group.
Retrieved 18 April2011.
Jump up^ Ziesing, HansJoachim. "Energieverbrauch in
Deutschland im Jahr 2014" (PDF) (in
tourism combined directly contribute over EUR43.2 billion to
German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry
contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs
(4.8% of total employment).
the 1970s, Germany's death rate has e
1. (2002). Region, State and Identity in
Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge.
2. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, p. 97.
3. Jump up^ Henderson, W. O. (January
1934). "The Zollverein". History. 19 (73):
4. ^ Jump
in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not
are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies
are included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Wellknown international brands include MercedesBenz, BMW, SAP, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, A
1. calculated at about 2 770 000".
^ Jump up to:a b Maksudov, S. (1994).
4. Jump up^ Werner Bhrer (24 December
2002). "Deutschland in den 50er Jahren:
Wirtschaft in beiden deutschen Staaten"
[Economy in both German
Stockholm International Peace Research
Institute. September 2011. Retrieved 7
Jump up^ "Germany to increase defence
spending". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 20
Jump up^ "Die Strke der Streitkrfte" (in
German). Bundeswehr. 10
Deutschland. October 2014. Retrieved 2
Jump up^ "Bevlkerungszahlen 2011 und
2012 nach Bundeslndern" (in
Bundesamt Deutschland. August 2013.
Retrieved 16 December 2013.
Jump up^ "2014 GDP per capita in 276 EU
104 German laureates.
Germany's achievements in the sciences have been significant,
and research and development efforts form an integral part of
the economy.The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 104
German laureates. In the beginning of the 20th