1. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffuse. Describe
how molecules move with respect to the concentration.
Molecules move from areas of high concentration to low concentration.
2. How does the size of a solute
Experiment 1: Enzymes in Food
Amylase is used by humans to facilitate digestion. Specifically, it is an enzyme
that breaks down starch molecules into sugar molecules. This is why people
sometimes observe a sweet taste after sucking on a starch-containing
1. Why is cellular respiration necessary for living organisms?
Cellular respiration is necessary for living organisms because it provides the
energy cells need to perform optimally.
2. Why is fermentation less effective than respiration?
Experiment 2: Virtual Microscope
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1. What is the water potential of an open beaker containing pure water?
The water potential of an open beaker containing pure water is zero.
2. Why dont red blood cells swell or shrink in blood?
Blood cells do not swell or shrink in bloo
Experiment 2: Effect of
Temperature on Enzyme Activity
Yeast cells contain catalase, an enzyme
which helps convert hydrogen peroxide to
water and oxygen. This enzyme is very
significant as hydrogen peroxide can be toxic
to cells if allowed to accumulate.
Experiment 2: Tonicity and the Plant Cell
Plant cells are able to generate osmotic pressure while other cells cannot. This is
due to specialized plant structures such as the cell wall which prevent lysis
caused by osmosis. By taking advantage of this syst
Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid
In this experiment, you will observe the effect that different molecular weights have
on the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium.
1 60 mL Corn Syrup Bottle, C12H22O11
Red and Blue Dye Soluti
Experiment 2: Concentration Gradients and Membrane Permeability
In this experiment, you will dialyze a solution of glucose and starch to observe:
The directional movement of glucose and starch.
The effect of a selectively permeable membrane on the diffusi
1. How could you test to see if an enzyme was completely saturated during an
You can test to see if an enzyme was completely saturated by adding more of
the substrate. If the rate of the reaction increases, the enzyme was not
Animals without backbone 95%
Animals without "true" tissue Cell layers are loose federations of cells
Not true tissues (i.e. no specialization into muscle or nervous tissue) Individual ce
Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange
Circulation in Animals
Diffusion is limited by distance and time
1 s for 100 um; 100 s for 1 mm; 3 hr for 1 cm
Circulatory system ensures that NO cell is farther than 2 mm away from the blood supply Funct
Chapter 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion
"Woman Holding a Balance" c. 1664
The ability to maintain a relatively narrow range of internal conditions Conditions that need to be regulated
Cellular Respiration vs. External Respiration Respiratory medium
Air (21% O2) Water (2% O2)
Area (directly proportional) Distance (inversely proportional)
The Immune System
Defense against viruses, bacteria, pathogens, and rogue cells Types of defense
Innate immunity Acquired immunity
Present before any exposure to pathogens (birth) Nonspecific Component
Animal Structure and Function
What do all Animals have in Common?
Certain processes are required for survival
Acquire energy (food and oxygen) Dispose of waste products Regulate body conditions (water, pH, and temperature) Protectio
Chapter 45 Chemical Signals in Animals
Homeostasis, Growth, Reproduction Nervous System
Fast Short-term Not as fast Can be long-term
Chemical signal Target cell
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Cell Division & Mitosis: There are two basic mechanisms by which organisms reproduce: ASEXUAL reproduction involves only a single parent (e.g. cell division) Progeny are genetically identical to the
Biology 111 Homework 2 Follow the instructions included with your clicker to complete and save the following homework assignment. Be sure to enter "END" once you finish the homework. A tutorial on entering homework is available online at: http:/www.g
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Virtually ALL multicellular eukaryotes are DIPLOID They have two copies of every chromosome PLOIDY refers to the number of chromosome SETS an organism carries Diploid o
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Viruses Viruses are simple infectious particles May include only a protein coat (CAPSID) and a genome Genome (genetic material) may be DNA or RNA Animal viruses may also be surrounded by an envelope
A man has an arterial capillary pressure with a hydrostatic blood pressure of 37mmHg and a hydrostatic interstitial pressure of 2mmHg an osmotic blood pressure of 27mmHg and an osmotic interstitial pressure of 2mmHg. He also has a venous capillary pr
CHO Digestion Oral Cavity, pharynx, esophagus Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) are broken down by Salivary Amylase into smaller polysaccharides.
Nucleic Acid Digestion
Lumen of small intestine
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines PHOTOSYNTHESIS: In biological systems, energy is made available to do work through the activity of chloroplasts and mitochondria (see Figure 9.2): Photosynthesis General Formula: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H1
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Evolution of Populations A primary consequence of natural selection is that allele frequencies in a population will change over time (MICROEVOLUTION). NOTE: Natural selection acts upon individuals,
Quiz 5 Biology 111 1. The site of protein synthesis in both prokaryotes & eukaryotes is the _. A. chloroplast B. lysosome C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) D. ribosome E. Golgi apparatus 2. One of the primary functions of the _ is detoxification
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Membranes & Cell Transport Biological membranes are selectively permeable boundaries that surround all cells. Phospholipids are a major constituent of all biological membranes (see Figure 5.13): Rec
Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Macromolecules Atoms Molecules Macromolecules A few common macromolecules in biology are POLYMERS of a particular class of molecule. Monomers Polymers Biological polymers are formed by a common reac