An Introduction to Statistics and Research Design: The Elements of Statistical Reasoning
Aug. 20, 2010
Two Branches of Statistics: Growing Our Knowledge about Human Behavior
Descriptive statistics
Org
Name: _ Date: _ 1. There is a different F distribution for every: A) sample size. B) level of the independent variable. C) combination of sample size and number of samples. D) within-groups degrees of
Discussion section 227 09/14/10 Chapter 5: Z scores and correlation 1. Z score is the distance of a score from its mean in units of standard deviation: how many SD is a score from the mean? 2. Transfo
Discussion section 227 09/21/10 Regression Regression is a statistical tool that allows us to predict scores of one variable based on the other variable. We are assuming that the relationship between
Discussion Section 227 10/05/10 Chapter 7: Probability, Z scores, and the Sampling Distribution of the Mean
The normal curve has known mathematical properties and so it is possible to compute the area
Lab 227 10/12/10 Chapter 8 - Hypothesis Testing and the Z-test What is hypothesis testing? A hypothesis test is a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population.
Discussion section 227 10/19/10 One-sample t-test t- tests in general allow us to compare two groups. The one-sample t-test is concerned with comparing one sample to one population and assumes that we
Discussion section 227 10/26/10 ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) Overview ANOVA is a procedure we use to test the null hypothesis when we want to evaluate the mean differences between two or more groups.
Discussion section 227 11/09/10 Effect Size, Power, & Confidence Intervals Confidence Intervals Point estimates vs. interval estimates Estimates of population parameters can be either point estimates
Discussion section 227 11/16/10 Chapter 12 Chi Square One-variable Chi Square (goodness of fit) This test statistic is used when we have one variable that is measured on a nominal scale. The variable
Discussion section 227 11/23/10 Chapter 13 Two Variable Chi Square Example 1 A psychologist is interested in finding out about aggressive behavior in men and women under stress. He asked 60 men and 40
09/07/10 Discussion Section 227 Chapter 3: Graphs Histogram or frequency polygon: use when our IV is measured on an interval/ratio scale and is continuous; the DV is usually frequency. o The IV goes o
Discussion Section PSYCH 227 08/31/10 Frequency distributions, central tendency, and variability Frequency Distributions Frequency distribution: a table showing the number of individuals located in ea
Lab 227 08/24/10 Chapter 1 Statistical notation The summation notation is the Greek letter sigma: . Order of operations: 1. Any calculation within parentheses. 2. Squaring (or raising to other exponen
CHAPTER 4 Probabilities and Research: The Risks and Rewards of Scientific Sampling
Samples and Their Populations: Why Statisticians Are Stingy! Decision making
The risks and rewards of sampling
Risks
Chapter 5: Correlation
Correlation: Assessing association between Variables
When trying to find the relationship between two different variables, we usually need to standardize the variables so that t
CHAPTER 6 Regression: Tools for Predicting Behavior
Regression: Building on The difference between regression and correlation Correlation is a statistical tool that enables us Simple Linear regression
Study guide for exam 1 What you should know: Chapter 1: 1. The differences between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. 2. The differences between sample and population 3. The difference
Regression: Tools for Predicting Behavior
Regression: Building on Correlation
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient is a statistic that allows us to quantify the linear relationship between two variable
227-1,2,3,4 Malone, Fall, 2010 Review sheet for Chaps 7, 8, 9, and 10 _ Inferential vs descriptive statistics Populations vs samples Parameters vs statistics Greek vs Roman alphabets Properties of the
Name: _ Date: _ 1. Increasing sample size: A) decreases the likelihood that we will reject the null hypothesis. B) increases the likelihood that we will reject the null hypothesis. C) has no effect on
227-1,2,3,4 Malone, Fall, 2010 Review sheet for Chaps 12, 13, and 15 _ Statistical significance vs practical importance Point estimates Confidence intervals Calculating confidence intervals from z dis
CHAPTER 2
Descriptive Statistics: Organizing, Summarizing, and Graphing Individual Variables
Organizing our data: A first step in Identifying Patterns
When we organize our data which is composed of ra
Discussion Section 227 11/30/10 Exam 3 Review Selected Topics Point estimates vs. interval estimates Estimates of population parameters can be either point estimates or interval estimates. A point est
CHAPTER 3 Visual Displays of Data: Graphs That Tell a Story
Uses of Graphs
Positive and negative uses
Can reveal/conceal complicated data Persuade other s to change their attitudes or behaviors Leads
9/27/2010
Point and Interval Estimation
1
Review
Inferential statistics are concerned with forming inferences that extend beyond the immediate sample data to make conclusions about unknown parameters
9/22/2010
Sampling Distributions
1
Overview
Up to this point we have been concerned with describing characteristics of a set of scores (e.g., central tendency, variability, distributional shape) In c
9/20/2010
The Normal Distribution
1
Probability Distributions
The basis of our inferences from samples to populations are probability distributions
Probability distributions are integral equations t
9/13/2010
z-scores
1
Raw Scores
Data are often expressed as raw scores, where subject responses are not transformed from the original data collection
e.g., total number of points earned on a test, n