Dams serve 3 purposes: 1)make money 2)control floods 3)water storage.
Dam managers must carefully time the release of water to do these jobs.
Watersheds (drainage basin, contributing area, source area) are
networks of ridges and valleys that accumulate
SC Coast Monthly Average
Tipping bucket raingauge
A hyetograph, daily
Rainfall stations and contours
Rainfall totals for a single storm.
Annual histograms and stats
Analysis of rain data
Water Facilitates Chemical
There are two main soil erosion
1) Rain Splash and Sheetflow Erosion
2) Mass movements
Keep in mind that soils naturally erode, but in
some cases humans accelerate it.
Soil or loose material transport/erosion
results from particle by particle
Systems are interconnected reservoirs of
matter and energy.
Systems may be open, closed or isolated.
Observations reveal that Earth has many
systems, and all are connected.
OPEN SYSTEM: Matter and energy are freely exchanged
Lake Tahoe, C
Most soils form by the weathering of rock and minerals into
smaller and chemically transformed pieces
= 0.00 gm/cm3
= 1.00 gm/cm3
organic matter = 0.5 gm/cm3
Stuff, regolith, overburden, particuLate matter etc. at the Earth s
Weathering and removal of material
A purpose of Earth surface process
studies is to show how
To do this:
Express express process rates in terms of
topographic factors (e.g. slope, distance
Assume continuity (e.g. mass balance)
d50 = 0.5-2 mm
b ~1.1 gm/cm3
Ksat ~ 102-103 mm/hr
porosity = ~0.55
basal ages 5-7 Ka