Biology 415 Final Exam Comprehensive Material 20-30% OF THE FINAL WILL BE FROM THE FOLLOWING SUBJECT MATTER.
Amniote: Anamniote: Dermatocranium: Neurocranium: Splanchnocranium: Hemichordata: Homology: Analogy: Endostyle: Phylogenetic systematics: Pl
o Phylum Echinodermata
o Phylum Hemichordata
o Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Craniata (Vertebrata)
Agnatha- without hinged jaws, primitative vertebrates, no
Jan 13 Monday 415
Vertebrates are the animals with backbone includes fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals.
Phylogenetic origins the evolutionary history of those structures.
Ontogenetic origins the embryological origin of the anatomical structure
Exam 1 next Friday
Most of the exam will be description/short answer
and fill in the blank.
Possible Exam 1 essays (you may get a question not
on this list)
Describe any one of the 3 primary germ layers and
state what structures it forms in the embryo.
Exam 2 next Monday March 3
Possible essays (there may be an essay not from
Regionalization of vertebral column
Fishes osteichthyes and chondrichthyes
Start material for exam 3 3/5/2014
chapter ten- muscles
Exam 3 Friday April 4
Possible essays on material since exam 3 (you may get a Q not on this
Material begins with muscles (chap 10)
Evolution of supracoracoideus muscle (what this muscle is and does,
what it does in the more primitive groups, how it
In all of the tetrapods the lungs form as a ventral evagination from the floor of the pharynx
o The evagination bifurcatesdividesinto the right and left lungs
Area of the ventral connection between lungs and pharynx: trachea (mammals)
415 Duggins 3
Apomorphic characteristic of mammals
Forms form myotmes of the cervical segments 3, 4, and 5
o During embryonic development the septum transversum is very close to these segments
Connective tissue sheet that separates thoracic (
Connective tissue: composed of scattered cells between which is the matrix
o Name of cells depend of connective tissue
-fibrocytes (adult)/ fibroblasts (forming; embryonic)
Osteoblasts / Osteocytes
o Between the cells :
BIOL 415 DUGGINS
Comparative vertebrate anatomy.
Evolutionary origin of anatomy
-Why certain bones are certain places, etc.
-Phylogenesis - creation/formation of anatomy/phylogeny.
-Ontogenesis embryonic development of structure of anatomy of var