The Logic Book: 6th Edition
Student Solutions for Exercise 7.4E
1. a. This English sentence may well be truepeople want to do all sorts of odd and even
impossible things. But the proposed translation into PL is obviously false, for it says, in
Some people regard it as settled that there are in the understanding certain innate principles.
These are conceived as primary notions [= first thoughts]letters printed on the mind of man,
so to speakwhich the soul [= mind; no religious implications] rece
And this, speaking generally, is the way in which oligarchy is
Yes, he said; but what are the characteristics of this form of
government, and what are the defects of which we were speaking?
First of all, I said, consider the nature of the
And so they grow richer and richer, and the more they think of making a
fortune the less they think of virtue; for when riches and virtue are
placed together in the scales of the balance, the one always rises as
the other falls.
And in proportion as
By all means.
I believe that oligarchy follows next in order.
And what manner of government do you term oligarchy?
A government resting on a valuation of property, in which the rich have
power and the poor man is deprived of it.
I understand, he replied.
should hereafter fall out by the way. Imagine the case of a man who is
standing and also moving his hands and his head, and suppose a person to
say that one and the same person is in motion and at rest at the same
moment - to such a mode of speech we shou
There is no difficulty in understanding this.
But the question is not quite so easy when we proceed to ask whether
these principles are three or one; whether, that is to say, we learn
with one part of our nature, are angry with another, and
Once more then, O my friend, we have alighted upon an easy question -whether the soul has these three principles or not?
An easy question! Nay, rather, Socrates, the proverb holds that hard is
Very true, I said; and I do not think that the metho
individual - if they agree, we shall be satisfied; or, if there be a
difference in the individual, we will come back to the State and have
another trial of the theory. The friction of the two when rubbed
together may possibly strike a light in which justi
this interchange and this meddling of one with another is the ruin of
Seeing then, I said, that there are three distinct classes, any meddling
of one with another, or the change of one into another, is the greatest
harm to the State,
And are suits decided on any other ground but that a man may neither
take what is another's, nor be deprived of what is his own?
Yes; that is their principle.
Which is a just principle?
Then on this view also justice will be admitted to be
abstracted; and, that this is the ultimate cause and condition of the
existence of all of them, and while remaining in them is also their
preservative; and we were saying that if the three were discovered by
us, justice would be the fourth or remaining on
their hands - that was the way with us - we looked not at what we were
seeking, but at what was far off in the distance; and therefore, I
suppose, we missed her.
What do you mean?
I mean to say that in reality for a long time past we have been talking
and always conspiring against one another.
That, surely, is at least as bad.
Another discreditable feature is, that, for a like reason, they are
incapable of carrying on any war. Either they arm the multitude, and
then they are more afraid of them than of
extremes of great wealth and utter poverty.
But think again: In his wealthy days, while he was spending his money,
was a man of this sort a whit more good to the State for the purposes of
citizenship? Or did he only seem to be a member of the ruling
Well, I said, and in oligarchical States do you not find paupers?
Yes, he said; nearly everybody is a pauper who is not a ruler.
And may we be so bold as to affirm that there are also many criminals to
be found in them, rogues who have stings, and whom th
The Logic Book 5th Edition Errata
Compiled November 2011
3rd line after characteristic truth-tables: replace immediate sentences with
First line after first truth-table: replace truth-tables with truth-values
See too, I said, the forgiving spirit of democracy, and the "don't care"
about trifles, and the disregard which she shows of all the fine
principles which we solemnly laid down at the foundation of the city -as when we said that, except in the case of som
Yes, my good Sir, and there will be no better in which to look for a
Because of the liberty which reigns there - they have a complete
assortment of constitutions; and he who has a mind to establish a State,
as we have been doing, must go
Yes, he said, that is the nature of democracy, whether the revolution
has been effected by arms, or whether fear has caused the opposite party
And now what is their manner of life, and what sort of a government have
they? for as the governmen
Such is the state of affairs which prevails among them. And often rulers
and their subjects may come in one another's way, whether on a
pilgrimage or a march, as fellow-soldiers or fellow-sailors; aye, and
they may observe the behaviour of each other in t
their sting - that is, their money - into some one else who is not on
his guard against them, and recover the parent sum many times over
multiplied into a family of children: and so they make drone and pauper
to abound in the State.
Yes, he said, there ar
to become as rich as possible, a desire which is insatiable?
The rulers, being aware that their power rests upon their wealth, refuse
to curtail by law the extravagance of the spendthrift youth because they
gain by their ruin; they take interes
For these reasons such an one will be more respectable than most people;
yet the true virtue of a unanimous and harmonious soul will flee far
away and never come near him.
I should expect so.
And surely, the miser individually will be an ignoble com
of pauper and rogue, which are forcibly kept down by his general habit
Do you know where you will have to look if you want to discover his
Where must I look?
You should see him where he has some great opportunity of acting
Yes, he said; at any rate the individual out of whom he came is like the
State out of which oligarchy came.
Let us then consider whether there is any likeness between them.
First, then, they resemble one another in the value which they set upon
he begins by emulating his father and walking in his footsteps, but
presently he sees him of a sudden foundering against the State as upon a
sunken reef, and he and all that he has is lost; he may have been a
general or some other high officer who is brou
The time then has arrived, Glaucon, when, like huntsmen, we should
surround the cover, and look sharp that justice does not steal away, and
pass out of sight and escape us; for beyond a doubt she is somewhere in
this country: watch therefore and strive to
And if there be any State in which rulers and subjects will be agreed as
to the question who are to rule, that again will be our State?
And the citizens being thus agreed among themselves, in which class will
temperance be found - in the rule
part over the worse.
Yes, he said, I see that what you say is true.
Let me further note that the manifold and complex pleasures and desires
and pains are generally found in children and women and servants, and in
the freemen so called who are of the lowes